Published in 2014… An introduction to how megalithic astronomers did their work, from an apparent starting point near CarnacAn extensive megalithic complex in southern Brittany, western France, predating the British megalithic..

At the Manio Quadrilateral, there is evidence of days having been counted using inches, taking advantage also of the strange virtues of that latitude for horizon astronomy, which are:

- The solar extremes on the horizon, in midsummer and midwinter, follow the hypotenuse of a 3-4-5The side lengths of the “first” Pythagorean triangle, special because the side lengths are successive small primes and, at Carnac, defined the solsticial extremes of the sun. triangle’s 5-side relative to east-west.
- The Moon’s maximum and minimum extreme standstills on the horizon, similarly followed the diagonals of a single square and double squareA unit rectangle of 1 by 2, with important use for alignment (Carnac), cosmology (Egypt) and tuning theory (Honnecourt Man). relative to east-west.
- Other multiple squares could perform other functions including giving the relative proportions of the time-cycles, being counted using day-inch countingThe practice of counting the days, using inches or other small units, between synodic phenomena such as years or planetary loops..

Carnac therefore makes it possible to see the British megalithic in a new light, as also the religions and the exact sciences of our more recent history, which most rationally inherited parts of these, such as our units of measure and planetary gods. The megalithic culture is instead undervalued as primitive in their beliefs and practices.

#### Posts relating to the book

- Goddess of Time in the SkyExplores the relationship between ancient astronomical practices and megalithic cultures, highlighting how early societies understood time through celestial cycles. It contrasts matrilineal hunter-gatherer societies with later patriarchal agricultural ones, suggesting that megalithic structures reflect deep, sacred knowledge of the cosmos and have influenced subsequent architectural designs across civilizations.
- Is Sacred Geometry A Message From God?Just after Summer SolsticeThe extreme points of sunrise and sunset in the year. In midwinter the sun is to the south of the celestial equator (the reverse in the southern hemisphere) and in midsummer the sun is north of that equator, which is above the geographical Equator)., Michael Quu and I recorded a conversation for his “Learn Something New” podcast and this is available, as below.
- Metrology of a Bronze Age DodecahedronThe Norton Disney Archaeology Group found an example of a “Gallo Roman Dodecahedron”. One of archaeology’s great enigmas, there are now about 33This is the number of years for an exact number of 12053 days. This period can be measured using the equinoctal sun and it has come to be known as the lifetime of semi-divine Solar Heroes such as Jesus and Mithras. This period relates geometrically to the 18.618 years of the moon's nodal period. known examples in what was Roman occupied Britain.
- Counting the Moon: 32 in 945 daysOne could ask “if I make a times table of 29.53059 days, what numbers of lunar months give a nearly whole number of days?”. In practice, the near anniversary of 37 lunar months and three solar years contains the number 32 which gives 945 days on a metrological photo study I made of Le Manio’s … Continue reading “Book: Sacred Number and the Lords of Time”
- Counting the Moon: Two equals 59 daysAbove: Title Slide of my 2015 Lecture Counting the lunar month has a deep history, reaching right into prehistory. Firstly, how does one find a phenomenon that gives a whole number of days. Its actual length is now known to be 29.53059 days, and to give a whole number just two lunar months gives 59 days, … Continue reading “Counting the Moon: Two equals 59 days”
- Alignment of Ushtogai Square to VegaThe Ushtagai Square is angled to fit an invisible three-by-three square aligned to the North Pole. This grid could be to help lay out the square but then why make it angled to the diagonal of the double squares within the grid?
- Utility of the Ushtogai Square to count the Nodal PeriodUsing Google Earth, a large landformThose geometrically connected buildings, natural features or horizon events, necessary for quantifying astronomy, measuring the landscape or, in later times, connecting communities. was found in Kazakhstan (Dmitriy Dey, 2007); a square 940 feet across with diagonals, made of evenly spaced mounds. We will demonstrate how the square could have counted the lunar nodal periodUsually referring to the backwards motion of the lunar orbit's nodes over 6800 days (18.618 years), leading to eclipse cycles like the Saros. of 6800 days (18.617 solar years)
- Cologne Cathedral Facade as Double Squareimage: The Gothic cathedral of Cologne by night, by Robert Breuer CC-SA 3.0 On the matter of facades of Gothic cathedrals, I hark back to previous work (February 2018) on Cologne cathedral. This was published in a past website that was destroyed by its RAID backup system! As we have seen with Chartres, some excellent lithographs with … Continue reading “Cologne Cathedral Facade as Double Square”
- Using Circumpolar Marker StarsThe marker stars within the circumpolar or arctic region of the sky have always included Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, the Great and Little Bear (arctic meaning “of the bears” in Greek), even though the location of the celestial North Pole circles systematically through the ages around the pole of the solar system, the eclipticThe … Continue reading “Using Circumpolar Marker Stars”
- Le Menec: as Sidereal ObservatoryToday, an astronomer resorts to the calculation of where sun, moon or star should be according to equations of motion developed over the last four centuries. The time used in these equations requires a clock from which the object’s location within the celestial sphere is calculated. Such locations are part of an implicit sky map … Continue reading “Le Menec: as Sidereal Observatory”
- Multiple Squares to form Flattened Circle Megalithsabove: a 28 square grid with double, triple (top), and four-square rectangles (red), plus (gray again) the triple rectangles within class B Contents 1. Problems with Thom’s Stone Circle Geometries. 2. Egyptian Grids of Multiple Squares. 3. Generating Flattened Circles using a Grid of Squares. ABSTRACT This paper reviews the geometries proposed by Alexander ThomScottish … Continue reading “Multiple Squares to form Flattened Circle Megaliths”
- Angkor Wat: Observatory of the Moon and Sunabove: Front side of the main complex by Kheng Vungvuthy for Wikipedia In her book on Angkor Wat, the Cambodian Hindu-style temple complex, Eleanor Mannikka found an architectural unitA unit of measure implied by measurements taken of significant features within a building or monument of any sort, demonstrating the use of metrologyThe application of units of length to problems of measurement, design, comparison or calculation. by its designers … Continue reading “Angkor Wat: Observatory of the Moon and Sun”
- Walking on the MoonThere are plans to walk again on the moon (above is a NASA visualization), but there is a sense in which the surface of the moon belongs to the surface of the earth, since the earth’s circumference is 4 times the mean diameter of the earth, minus the moon’s circumference. The Earth and Moon were … Continue reading “Walking on the Moon”
- Knowing Time in the MegalithicThe human viewpoint is from the day being lived through and, as weeks and months pass, the larger phenomenon of the year moves the sun in the sky causing seasons. Time to us is stored as a calendar or year diary, and the human present moment conceives of a whole week, a whole month or … Continue reading “Knowing Time in the Megalithic”
- Counting Perimetersabove: a slide from my lecture at Megalithomania in 2015 We know that some paleolithic marks counted in days the moon’s illuminations, which over two cycles equal 59 day-marks. This paved the way for the megalithic monuments that studied the stars by pointing to the sky on the horizon; at the sun and moon rising … Continue reading “Counting Perimeters”
- The Best Eclipse CycleThe anniversary of the Octon (4 eclipse years in 47 lunar months) did not provide similar eclipses and so, by counting more than four, the other motions of the Moon could also form part of that anniversary. This is especially true of the anomalistic month, which changes the changes the apparent size of the Moon … Continue reading “The Best Eclipse Cycle”
- Vectors in Prehistory 2In early education of applied mathematics, there was a simple introduction to vector addition: It was observed that a distance and direction travelled followed by another (different) distance and direction, shown as a diagram as if on a map, as directly connected, revealed a different distance “as the crow would fly” and the direction from … Continue reading “Vectors in Prehistory 2”
- Vectors in Prehistory 1In previous posts, it has been shown how a linear count of time can form a square and circle of equal perimeterA type of geometry where an rectilinear geometry has same perimeter as a circle, usually a square but also a 6 by 5 rectangle whose perimeter is 22, assuming pi is 22/7 or 3 + 1/7. to a count. In this way three … Continue reading “Vectors in Prehistory 1”
- Quantification of Eclipse CyclesFollowing on from the last post: Given the many sub-cycles found in the Moon’s behavior, and the angle of its orbit to the EclipticThe path of the Sun through the sky along which eclipses of sun and moon can occur, traditionally divided into the 365¼ parts of the solar yearFrom Earth: the time in which the sun moves once around the Zodiac, now known to be caused by the orbital period of the Earth around the Sun., each part then a DAY … Continue reading “Quantification of Eclipse Cycles”
- The Strange Design of EclipsesWe all know about solar eclipses but they are rarely seen, since the shadow of the moon (at one of its two orbital nodes) creates a cone of darkness which only covers a small part of the earth’s surface which travels from west to east, taking hours. For the megalithic to have pinned their knowledge … Continue reading “The Strange Design of Eclipses”
- Time and the Midpoints of the Sun and MoonOur two luminaries, the sun and moon, share a similar form-in-time, as the seasonal year and the monthly phases of the moon. The form they share is of two extremes of opposite character, and two midpoints between these. The Solar Extremes: At the solar extremes, the sun rises high in midsummer day and rises to … Continue reading “Time and the Midpoints of the Sun and Moon”
- The Integration of the Megalithic YardAbove is a proposed geometric relation between Thom’s megalithic yardAny unit of length 2.7-2.73 feet long, after Alexander ThomScottish engineer 1894-1985. Discovered, through surveying, that Britain's megalithic circles expressed astronomy using exact measures, geometrical forms and, where possible, whole numbers. discovered 2.72 ft and 2.722 ft as units within the geometry within the megalithic monuments of Britain and Brittany. (2.72 feet), the royal cubit3/2 feet of any sort, such as 12/7 {1.714285}, 1.5 Royal feet of … Continue reading “The Integration of the Megalithic Yard”
- A Mexican Triple Square at Teotihuacanimage: Ricardo David Sánchez for Wikipedia This article is from June 2012 on my past Matrix of Creation site where it was read 548 times at the time of last backup. It led to another article and so I repeat it here. The late Hugh Harleston Jr revealed the famous Mexican pyramids at Teotihuacan as being the manifestation of a … Continue reading “A Mexican Triple Square at Teotihuacan”
- Introduction to my book Sacred Number and the Lords of TimeModern mathematical science deals in precise measurements accurate to many decimal places. Simple integers rarely appear. the trend has recently been toward reforming our units of measure to get away from specific objects of reference and base them on universal physical properties. in ancient times people tried much the same thing, but, not having an … Continue reading “Introduction to my book Sacred Number and the Lords of Time”
- The Many Faces of Great TimeFigure 7.5 The widespread tradition of a God who changes the astrological Age, through the Precession of the Equinoxes: Top left, Mithras as Sol Invictus; top right, Mithras slaying the Age of Taurus; bottom left, Aion, God of Ages; and bottom right, Orphic God Phanes. Mithras slaying the Age of Taurus (photo by Tim Prevett … Continue reading “The Many Faces of Great Time”
- The Stonehenge Trilithons (Part 2): Day-Inch CountingIn the previous article, it was shown that the form of the trilithons, of five taller double sarsens approximating to a five-pointed star, matches the astronomical phenomena of the successive morning and evening stars, as Venus approaches Earth from the east and then recedes to the west as the morning pass. On approach, the planet … Continue reading “The Stonehenge Trilithons (Part 2): Day-Inch Counting”
- Before, during and after Sacred Geometryabove: Carreg Coetan Arthur portal dolmenA chamber made of vertical megalithsStructures built out of large little-altered stones in the new stone age or neolithic between 5,000-2,500 (bronze age), in the pursuit of astronomical knowledge. upon which a roof or ceiling slab was balanced. in Newport, Pembrokeshire. The prehistory of sacred geometry was the late stone age, when the stone circles, dolmens, and long alignmentsIn general, to the sun and moon on the horizon, rising in the east or … Continue reading “Before, during and after Sacred Geometry”
- Gavrinis R8: Diagram of the Saros-Metonic CycleThe SarosThe dominant eclipse period of 223 lunar months after which a near identical lunar or solar eclipse will occur. cycle is made up of 19 eclipse years of 364.62 days whilst the MetonicGreek: The continuous 19 year recurrence of the moon’s phase and location amongst the stars. cycle is made up of 19 solar years of 365.2422 days. … Continue reading “Gavrinis R8: Diagram of the Saros-Metonic Cycle”
- What stone L9 might teach usimage of stone L9, left of corridor of Gavrinis Cairn, 4Km east of CarnacAn extensive megalithic complex in southern Brittany, western France, predating the British megalithic. complex. [image: neolithiqueblog]This article was first published in 2012. One test of validity for any interpretation of a megalithic monument, as an astronomically inspired work, is whether the act of interpretation … Continue reading “What stone L9 might teach us”
- Astronomy 2: The Chariot with One WheelWhat really happens when Earth turns? The rotation of Earth describes periods that are measured in days. The solar yearFrom Earth: the time in which the sun moves once around the ZodiacThe 12 constellations through which the sun passes in the solar year of 365.2422 days, now known to be caused by the orbital period of the Earth around the Sun. is 365.242 days long, the lunation period 29.53 … Continue reading “Astronomy 2: The Chariot with One Wheel”
- Astronomy 1: Knowing North and the Circumpolar Skyabout how the cardinal directions of north, south, east and west were determined, from Sacred Number and the Lords of Time, chapter 4, pages 84-86. Away from the tropics there is always a circle of the sky whose circumpolar stars never set and that can be used for observational astronomy. As latitude increases the pole … Continue reading “Astronomy 1: Knowing North and the Circumpolar Sky”
- The Discovery of a Soli-Lunar Calendar Device at Le Manioby Robin HeathEngineer, teacher and author, who discovered the Lunation TriangleThe right-angled triangle within which the lengths of the two longer sides are the relative proportions of the solar and lunar years. (c. 1990), that enabled the lunar year to be rationally related to the solar year. During the 1990s we collaborated to further understand the astronomical and numerical discoveries of the megalithic astronomers. In 2009 I returned to Plouharnel, again for the SolsticeThe extreme points … Continue reading “The Discovery of a Soli-Lunar Calendar Device at Le Manio”
- Le Site Mégalithique du Manio à Carnacby Howard Crowhurst Perched on a hill in the forest north of the CarnacAn extensive megalithic complex in southern Brittany, western France, predating the British megalithic. alignmentsIn general, to the sun and moon on the horizon, rising in the east or setting in the west. Also, a name special to Carnac’s groups of parallel rows … Continue reading “Le Site Mégalithique du Manio à Carnac”
- Day-inch counting at the Manio QuadrilateralIt is 10 years since my brother and I surveyed this remarkable monument which demonstrates what megalithic astronomy was capable of around 4000 BC, near CarnacAn extensive megalithic complex in southern Brittany, western France, predating the British megalithic.. The Quadrilateral is the earliest clear demonstration of day-inch countingThe practice of counting the days, using inches … Continue reading “Day-inch counting at the Manio Quadrilateral”
- pdf: Synchronicity of Day and Year with the Lunar OrbitThis document was prepared by Richard Heath as a letter for Nature magazine and submitted on 14th April 1994 but remained unpublished. For readers of the Matrix of Creation (2nd ed, Inner Traditions Press, 2004) it marks the discovery of a unit of time proposed and named the ChrononThe average excess of the day over … Continue reading “pdf: Synchronicity of Day and Year with the Lunar Orbit”
- pdf: Counting lunar eclipses using the Phaistos DiskThis paper* concerns itself with a unique fired-clay disk, found by Luigi Pernier in 1908 within the Minoan “palace” of Phaistos (aka Faistos), on the Greek island of Crete. Called the Phaistos Disk, its purpose or meaning has been interpreted many times, largely seen as either (a) a double-sided text in the repeated form of … Continue reading “pdf: Counting lunar eclipses using the Phaistos Disk”
- Geometry 4: Right Triangles within CirclesThis lesson is a necessary prequel to the next lesson. It is an initially strange fact that all the possible right triangles will fit within a half circle when the hypotenuse equals the half-circles diameter. The right angle will then exactly touch the circumference. From this we can see visually that the trigonometrical relationships, normally … Continue reading “Geometry 4: Right Triangles within Circles”
- Sacred Number and the Lords of TimeBack Cover ANCIENT MYSTERIES “Heath has done a superb job of collating his own work on the subject of megalithsStructures built out of large little-altered stones in the new stone age or neolithic between 5,000-2,500 (bronze age), in the pursuit of astronomical knowledge. with the objective views of many other researchers in the field. I … Continue reading “Sacred Number and the Lords of Time”
- Recalibrating the Pyramid of GizaOnce the actual height (480 feet) and actual southern base length (756 feet) are multiplied, the length of the 11th degree of latitude (Ethiopia) emerges, in English feet, as 362880 feet. However, in the numeracy of the 3rd millennium BC, a regular number would be used. In the last post, it was noted that John … Continue reading “Recalibrating the Pyramid of Giza”
- Ethiopia within the Great PyramidMy last posting mentioned John Neal’s creative step of not averaging the Great Pyramid of Giza’s four sides, as had routinely been done in the past – as if to discover an idealized design with four equal sides. Instead, Neal found each length to have intensionally been different. When multiplied by the pyramid’s full height, … Continue reading “Ethiopia within the Great Pyramid”
- Cretan Calendar DisksI have interpreted two objects from Phaistos (Faistos), both in the Heraklion Museum. Both would work well as calendar objects. One would allow the prediction of eclipses: The other for tracking eclipse seasons using the 16/15 relationship of the synod of Saturn (Chronos) and the Lunar Year:
- paper: Lunar Simulation at Le ManioOur survey at Le Manio revealed a coherent arc of radial stones, at least five of which were equally long, equally separated and set to a radius of curvature that suggested a common centre. It appears the astronomers at Le Manio understood that, following three lunar sidereal orbits (after 82 days) the moon would appear again at … Continue reading “paper: Lunar Simulation at Le Manio”
- paper: The Origins of Day-Inch CountingABSTRACTThis paper presents the theory that in the Megalithic period, around 4500-4000 BCE, astronomical time periods were counted as one day to one inch to form primitive metrological lengths that could then be compared, to reveal the fundamental ratios between the solar yearFrom Earth: the time in which the sun moves once around the Zodiac, … Continue reading “paper: The Origins of Day-Inch Counting”
- Le Menec: Start of Carnac’s AlignmentsThe Meaning Of Le Menec “Alignments” are long rows of stones, that run in parallel for long distances through the landscape. The alignmentsIn general, to the sun and moon on the horizon, rising in the east or setting in the west. Also, a name special to Carnac’s groups of parallel rows of stones, called Le … Continue reading “Le Menec: Start of Carnac’s Alignments”
- Units within the Great Pyramid of GizaThere is a great way to express pior π: The constant ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter, approximately equal to 3.14159, in ancient times approximated by rational approximations such as 22/7The simplest accurate approximation to the π ratio, between a diameter and circumference of a circle, as used in the ancient and prehistoric periods.. of 22/7The simplest accurate approximation to the π ratio, between a diameter and circumference of a circle, as used in the ancient … Continue reading “Units within the Great Pyramid of Giza”
- THE MEANING OF LE MENEC (PDF)This paper proposes that an unfamiliar type of circumpolar astronomy was practiced by the time Le Menec was built, around 4000 BCE. This observatory enabled the rotation of the earth and eclipticThe path of the Sun through the sky along which eclipses of sun and moon can occur, traditionally divided into the 365¼ parts of the solar … Continue reading “THE MEANING OF LE MENEC (PDF)”
- A Brief Introduction to Ancient Metrology (2006)appended toSacred Number and the Origin of Civilisation There used to be an interest in metrologyThe application of units of length to problems of measurement, design, comparison or calculation. – the Ancient Science of Measures – especially when studying ancient monuments. However the information revealed from sites often became mixed with the religious ideas of the researcher … Continue reading “A Brief Introduction to Ancient Metrology (2006)”
- Locmariaquer 1: Carnac’s Menhirs and Circumpolar StarsRead 1458 times when last published on MatrixOfCreation.co.uk, Wednesday, 16 May 2012 14:22 At megalithic sites, the only alignment of note on the northern horizon has usually been the direction of the north pole or “true” North on the site plan. “Megalithic” cultures worldwide, both the later manifestations in the Americas or the old world cultures of … Continue reading “Locmariaquer 1: Carnac’s Menhirs and Circumpolar Stars”
- St Pierre 1: Jupiter and the MoonThe egg-shaped stone circles of the megalithic, in Brittany by c. 4000 BC and in Britain by 2500 BC, seem to express two different astronomical time lengths, beside each other as (a) a circumference and then (b) a longer, egg-shaped extension of that circle. It was Alexander ThomScottish engineer 1894-1985. Discovered, through surveying, that Britain’s … Continue reading “St Pierre 1: Jupiter and the Moon”
- The Avebury Square within it’s Southern CircleSoil resistance work (“geophys”), by archaeologists from the University of Leicester, of the land inside the southern stone circle of Avebury Henge, has revealed more about the Obelisk and lines of standing stones, which appear to have formed a near-square rectangle. Information can be hard to obtain when work is yet to be published but … Continue reading “The Avebury Square within it’s Southern Circle”
- Silbury Hill: Metrological Key to the Model of the Earth between Stonehenge & AveburyArchived: 11 August 2012 The exact location of Silbury Hill is as mysterious as the purpose of the Hill itself, a thirty degree cone, only recently with a flat top, overlooking Avebury and the surrounding hills. The Hill figures in John Michell’s model of the Earth between Stonehenge and Avebury in which one quarter of a degree … Continue reading “Silbury Hill: Metrological Key to the Model of the Earth between Stonehenge & Avebury”
- The Three Worlds at Gavrinisfollowing on from previous post, an article by M Guillaume found inAAK Etudes et Travaux No. 1, 1977 Do these three stages [at Gavrinis] not correspond to the three creations, probably inherited by Celts, and those in Egypt, preceding access to a sanctuary?