Contemporary beings see the world in ever more functional and descriptive ways, where a form of words, or a mathematization of the world, overlays the actual sensory experience of it. This has made our task, of interpreting previous Ages, and their big ideas, prone to errors, pitfalls and presumptions. And the notion of there being a Universal Will of some sort seems, since the medieval period, highly optimistic: for why should humans be able to know more than our scientific instruments can tell us or be able to know the universe as a single whole, still connected to Everything. For myself, applying the phenomena of numbers found within the counted periodicities of celestial motions seem to give the key to an alternative world, hidden from modern science.

We have seen that the early numbers define the world of musical harmony but other important patterns arise within the ordinal numbers such as,

the Fibonacci approximations to the Golden Mean (phi = 1.618),

the Exponential constant (e = 2.718, the megalithic yard), from which trigonometry of the circle arises naturally,

the radial geometrical constant, (pi = 3.1416) as approximated by rational fractions {π = 22/7 25/8 63/20 864/275} and

the triangular progressions of square roots, as another development of the early numbers (in space) as geometry, also approximated by rational* numbers (rational meaning “integer numbers that can form mundane ratios”).

The transcendent (or irrational) ratio constants * (first mentioned in the Preface) are the visible after-effects of the creation of time and space. They must be part of the framework conditions for Existence, these also creating harmonicphenomenon that are not transcendent; these relying instead (as stated) on the distance functions of ordinal numbers: their distance from one and their relative distance from each other, lying beneath the surface of the ordinal numbers. Ordinality, to modern thought a universal algorithm for such distances, explains or defines what is harmonious in the physical world and in what way. Significant distance relations, such as those found in the early ordinal numbers, must then be repeated at ever greater doubling, tripling and so on {1 2 3 4 5 6} => {45 90 135 180 225 270}, where units can be scaled up by any number to become the larger structures, within any greater micro-cosmos. This is especially seen within ancient number science and its primary context of octave doubling, where what lies within octaves vis-à-vis scales and octaves within octaves, requires the right amount of up-scaling, as in the cosmology of Will (and not of Being), presented by G.I. Gurdjieff from 1917 onwards.

The illusion of number is that one can never penetrate the ubiquitous unitary distance of 1, the unity which becomes the ordinals which are so many exact assemblies of one; and of their ratios, so that one is not a number nor a transcendent ratio but rather is Number is the primordial Thing: a transcendent wholeness, found in every unit that causes relatedness through intermediate distance, or proximity. One is like Leibnitz’s Monads applied to the cosmic enterprise of universe building, as a fully quantified Whole and its Parts.

“The Absolute, that is, the state of things when the All constitutes one Whole, is, as it were, the primordial state of things, out of which, by division and differentiation, arises the diversity of the phenomena observed by us.”

above: The human essence class related to four other classes in J.G. Bennett’s Gurdjieff: Making a New World. Appendix II. page 290. This systematics presents the human essence class which eats the germinal essence of Life, but is “eaten” by cosmic individuality, the purpose of the universe. The range of human potential is from living like an animal to living like an angel or demiurge, then helping the cosmic process.

The human essence class is a new type of participation within the universe where the creation can form its own creative Will, in harmony with the will that creates the universe. The higher intelligences have a different relationship to the creation than human intelligence. It is based upon this Universal Will (to create the universe) which has manifested a world we can only experience from outside of it. And the creative tip of creation* is the universal life principle that led to the human world where it is possible to participate in the intelligence behind the world, through a transformation into an Individuality, creative according their own pattern while harmonious with the universal will.

*creative tip: The evolving part of organic life is humanity. Humanity also has its evolving part but we will speak of this later; in the meantime we will take humanity as a whole. If humanity does not evolve it means that the evolution of organic life will stop and this in its turn will cause the growth of the ray of creation to stop. At the same time if humanity ceases to evolve it becomes useless from the point of view of the aims for which it was created and as such it may be destroyed. In this way the cessation of evolution may mean the destruction of humanity.

One could ask “if I make a times table of 29.53059 days, what numbers of lunar months give a nearly whole number of days?”. In practice, the near anniversary of 37 lunar months and three solar years contains the number 32 which gives 945 days on a metrological photo study I made of Le Manio’s southern curb (kerb in UK) stones, where 32 lunar months in day-inches could be seen to be 944.97888 inches from the center of the sun gate. This finding would have allowed the lunar month to be approximated to high accuracy in the megalithic of 4000 BC as being 945/32 = 29.53125 days.

Silhouette of day-inch photo survey after 2010 Spring Equinox Quantification of the Quadrilateral.

One can see above that the stone numbered 32 from the Sun Gate is exactly 32/36 of the three lunar years of day-inch counting found indexed in the southern curb to the east (point X). The flat top of stone 36 hosts the end of 36 lunar months (point Q) while the end of stone 37 locates the end of three solar years (point Q’). If that point is the end of a rope fixed at point P, then arcing that point Q’ to the north will strike the dressed edge of point R, thus forming Robin Heath’s proposed Lunation Triangle within the quadrilateral as,

points P – Q – R !

In this way, the numerical signage of the Southern Curb matches the use of day-inch counting over three years while providing the geometrical form of the lunation triangle which is itself half of the simpler geometry of a 4 by 1 rectangle.

The key additional result shows that 32 lunar months were found to be, by the builders (and then myself), equal to 945 days (try searching this site for 945 and 32 to find more about this key discovery). Many important numerical results flow from this.

Plan of Avebury showing the stone arrangement of the henge. Source: The Avebury Cycle Michael Dames (1977).

The principle of finding anniversaries appears promising when three solar years contain just over 37 (37.1) lunar months while three lunar years contain 36 lunar months and, if one then looks for a better anniversary, then one can move to the 8 year period which has two key features.

The sun will appear on the horizon where it did 8 solar years ago because of the quarter day every solar year.

The moon will be in the same phase (relative to the sun) after 99 lunar months.

This appears useful: by dividing the days in eight years (~ 2922 days) by 99 (having counted to 99 months by eight years) the resulting estimate for the lunar month is 29.514 days, out by just 23 minutes of our time.

Eight solar years was therefore an early calendar in which the solar year could be somewhat integrated by the lunar year. However, the lunar year was entrenched as a sacred calendar, for example in Archaic Greece. And it may be that when the Neolithic reached England in the Bronze Age that 99 stones were placed around the massive henge of Avebury so that eight solar years could be tracked in a seasonal calendar alongside 99 lunar months, 96 months constituting eight lunar years.

The three lunar months left over must then, divided by 8, give the solar excess over the lunar year as 3/8 = 0.375, whereas the actual excess is 0.368 lunar months or 5 hours less. In the previous post, two months the stone age could have been counted as 59 days, here 8 solar years could have been counted as 99 lunar months at Avebury. Through this, one would be homing in on knowing the solar excess per year (10.875 days) and the length of the lunar month, to more accuracy.

It is obvious that counting using whole months has not got enough resolution to catch an accurate result and so in the next post we must revert to counting days in inches, as was done at Le Manio around 4000 BC, over the 36/37 month anniversary at three solar years. It is important to grasp that while we have great functional mathematics, we are here using it to find out what the numeracy 3000-4000 BC could have intended or achieved within counts monumentalized geometrically as a stone monument that can store information.

Counting the lunar month has a deep history, reaching right into prehistory. Firstly, how does one find a phenomenon that gives a whole number of days. Its actual length is now known to be 29.53059 days, and to give a whole number just two lunar months gives 59 days, leaving just 1.8 days too little. But never mind, for the stone age this looks promising but how can one observe the moon at a fixed point and which phase is best to count.

Within a day, before or after the full moon, the Moon looks pretty full, changing little and offering no decisive moment between to count between two full moons. For this reason, a few prehistoric bones give clues to their method which involved counting days with some mark representing the Moon’s phase. This led to the sickle/cresent marks to left “(” or right “)” and between these a round mark “O” and dashes of dark or invisible moon “-“. These are what Alexander Marshack saw in the Albard Plaque, carved on a flat bone from a midden:

Figure 1 (left) Alexander Marshack investigating marked bones in Europe and a crucial interpretation of a 30,000 year old bone as a double lunar month of counting. From my 2015 lecture in Glastonbury about my work prior to Sacred Number and the Lords of Time in 2014.

Marshack demonstrated plausible evidence that consecutive day marks were used in the stone age, stylised to indicate lunar phase within a pattern recognizing that two lunar months formed a recurrent structure in time in a whole number of days, namely 58 days. The utility of the calendric device was that the cycle could be visualized as a whole, making the plaque an icon of both knowledge and meaning. This could be shared but also gave the possessor of this small bone, a power to predict when hunting is possible in lighter nights the light cycle of the moon. In addition, the moon’s phase locates the location of the sun and how many hours were left before the dawn. The bone was an overview of a daily process during most of which the moon is visible by night and day.

In following posts I look at many other ways to count the month, based on longer counts and also look at where in the lunar phases one can best start and stop counting.

You may like to watch my lecture at Megalithomania (which starts with an ad you may skip).