## The Cellular World of Twelve

The foot has twelve inches just as the British shilling had twelve pence. A good case can be made for twelve as a base like 10, since there are 12 months within the year and many ancient monuments can be seen to have employed duodecimal alongside decimal number, to good effect.

Until 1971 the currency in the United Kingdom of Britain was duodecimal, called pounds, shillings and pence.

This old system of currency, known as pounds, shillings and pence or lsd, dated back to Roman times when a pound of silver was divided into 240 pence, or denarius, which is where the ‘d’ in ‘lsd’ comes from. (lsd: librum, solidus, denarius). see historic-uk.com

There were 12 pence in a shilling and 20 shillings in a pound, that is 240 pennies. The change to a decimal (100) pence in a pound caused a lot of inflation during the changeover due to price opportunism, then part lasting recession. In British heads the skill of giving and taking change in a duodecimal arithmetic was soon lost. In the late 70’s my mother, when visiting the US, was amusingly referencing “old money”, alongside the exchange rate between a decimal pound and the decimal dollar, just as Greeks had problems with the Euro.

## History of Decimal Measures

Napoleon sought to “rationalize” all the ancient weights and measures of France culminating in the decimal units within modern science, firstly CGS (Centimeter-Gram-Seconds) and then MKS (Meters-Kilogram-Seconds).

The Meter exemplifies the situation: it contains 100 centimeters and 1000 millimeters whereas the root foot for the worldwide and only ancient metrology is that called English which has 12 inches (each a “thumb” in French) and each inch halves, quarters, eighths and sixteenths of an inch, but also 10ths etc., that is a duodecimal system and decimal notation as with 12 = 10 +2.

The metrology of the ancient world had no need for decimalization since it had been formed to employ all the integer numbers, using fractions of a foot – fractions being a combined multiplication (numerator) and division (denominator) operation. That is, there was no base-10 decimal notation when metrology was developed and one can suggest that decimalization was created in the wake of treasuries, mints and central banks.

However, decimal notation emerged much earlier with the alphabetic form of writing languages down. Cuneiform had used compound sounds (called syllables such as “no”) but the new Phoenician alphabets notated the consonants and vowels of specific languages, now called phonemes of sound (for exampple, the phonemes “n” and “o”). This reduces the number of symbols needed to notate speech, and in turn these symbols could then have a decimal function and words could also be numbers, in a code called Gematria:

Gematria is the practice of assigning a numerical value to a name, word or phrase by reading it as a number, or sometimes by using an alphanumerical cipher. Wikipedia on Gematria.

As the name implies, Alpha equals 1, Beta =2, D = 4, J = 10, etc.. Words could then encode a number, as in the Bible where Adam equals the three letters A.D.M whose numerical values in Hebrew/ Aramaic (1.4.40): when added up they “mean” 45. The later letters were values in tens and hundreds so that decimalization probably goes back to the 1st millennium BCE.

Figure 1 Numeric equivalence of Hebrew Alphabet

We are therefore needing to go earlier than the decimal base-10 system or indeed the use of any base at all, to see into the world of the megalithic astronomer and different relationships to numbers.

This previous world which gave birth to a type of math that is not arithmetical but instead used the factors within integers and rational fractions, initially through measured geometrical proportionality but then through sets of measures all rational fractions of the common foot.

## Prehistory: Non-Decimal Measures

The earliest number encountered by early astronomers would have been (when they counted) the twelve lunar months within a year. The properties of the number twelve are generally taken to come from its factors (such as 4 x 3), it Platonic solid (the duodecahedron) – see next section. There were no twelve hours in half a day. We will the take a deeper approach, of visualizing the set of numbers within twelve, as {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12}

#### Factors within Twelve

Twelve does not contain is the prime number 5 nor any higher prime factor. However, in counting to 12, there are two factors containing 5, namely 5 and 10. And there are, of course, the prime numbers and their ennumerated multiples, such as, for 7, {14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, …}. This means the number field is made up of empty slots into which the number one greater than the preceding number must then be a prime number. And any prime number can then be doubled, tripled, etc., to become enumerated itself. That is, which we call prime numbers are those that happen to have no preceding number of which it is a multiple of any (previously arisen) number.

#### Numbers Within Twelve

Twelve does not contain is the prime number 5 nor any higher prime factor. However, in counting to 12, there are two factors containing 5, namely 5 and 10. And there are, of course, the prime numbers and their ennumerated multiples, such as, for 7, {14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, …}. This means the number field is made up of empty slots into which the number one greater than the preceding number must then be a prime number. And any prime number can then be doubled, tripled, etc., to become enumerated itself. That is, which we call prime numbers are those that happen to have no preceding number of which it is a multiple of any (previously arisen) number.

Figure 2 The inner structure of Twelve

Figure of (top) the first twelve numbers, four of which divide by three, making the even numbers (orange) alternate with the odd numbers in serpentine fashion. Numbers dividing by 5 then alternate down then up, every two threes.  (bottom) the color keys used. (One could show primes with italics)

In a following post, the consequences of this inner structure reveal Twelve’s cellular structure within the number field.

## The Moon is Key to our Survival

With the advent of many orbital missions, the Moon is threatened with orbital and other changes due to space travel.

The modern theory of relativity has joined the worlds of space and time, now called spacetime. As beings we live in space while moving through time, and both these are assumed to be neutral dimensions having mere extension. However, spacetime is distorted by the massive gravitational objects found in solar systems, these exerting an attractive force on all objects including ourselves. As humans, we are therefore locked onto the surface of the earth by gravity, viewing a solar system of eight orbiting planets seen in the sky from the surface of the third planet from the sun. The earth has an unusually large moon which has fallen into resonance with the planets, a resonance then belonging to time.

The Moon was formed 4 to 5 billion years ago and this affected the Earth’s geology, stabilized its tilt (giving stability to the seasons) and providing tidal reaches on coasts. But apart from such direct physical changes to the earth, the moon has now developed resonances with the solar system, especially its outer giant planets, and this has given time on earth a highly specific resonant environment, based upon the lunar month and year of 12 lunar months. This resonant network appears to be numerical when counting days, months and years, in between significant events in the sky.

The structure of time is numerical because of these resonances between the moon, the sun and the planets. This resonance came to be known by previous civilizations and was thought meaningful in explaining how the world was created. Time was deemed spiritual because its organisation allowed human beings to understand the purpose of life and of the earth through the structure of time. In particular, the moon was a key to unlocking the time world as a link to a higher or spiritual world, a literal sky heaven organised according to numbers.

Continue reading “The Moon is Key to our Survival”

## Legominism and the Three Worlds

Above: Altaic shaman’s drum depicting the cosmos

The general ordering of the cosmos throughout history was phenomenological, following the very apparent division between the sky and the earth, with the living principle between called a “middle earth”. A summation of its symbolism was placed within Dante’s trilogy The Divine Comedy; of an inferno, purgatory and paradise which were the three worlds of the geocentric experience. But how does it come about that the phenomenological was translated into ancient literature, buildings or, as Gurdjieff names these, legominisms in the literal sense of being made of meaning-making and the naming of things – a power given to Adam but not the angels.

Continue reading “Legominism and the Three Worlds”

## The Many Faces of Great Time

Figure 7.5 The widespread tradition of a God who changes the astrological Age, through the Precession of the Equinoxes: Top left, Mithras as Sol Invictus; top right, Mithras slaying the Age of Taurus; bottom left, Aion, God of Ages; and bottom right, Orphic God Phanes. Mithras slaying the Age of Taurus (photo by Tim Prevett courtesy of the Segontium Museum, 2005)

This article has been extracted from my 4th book Sacred Number and the Lords of Time as being a fairly self-contained read. The “great time” in the heading is the Precession of the Equinoxes or Great Year of Plato, in which god-like human figures are posited in ancient times as governing the Age named after the Zodiacal sign in which the sun sits at the spring equinox, today the age of Pisces is about to become the age of Aquarius, but the Current Era corresponds to the age of Pisces, inaugurated by the birth of Jesus, hence also called A.D. for “anno dominie” or “year of Our Lord”.

Continue reading “The Many Faces of Great Time”

## The Tragic Loss of the Geocentric Arts & Sciences

above: The first page of a significant article I wrote for New Dawn (3000 words, 5 illustrations). The PDF of this issue is available from New Dawn website.

## Sir Francis Bacon and Codes

from Digital Codes and Converters, the 1961 Ph.D. Thesis of F.G. Heath at the Victoria University of Manchester. Read optically for a colleague many years ago, it is provided here as interesting; touching upon the authorship of Shakespeare and other Elizabethan texts and poems. It also shows how cryptography then awaited the computer to create the modern digital world of information.

# 1.2 Sir Francis Bacon

There are reports going back to 200 B.C. (Polybius: a semaphore) for instances where combinations of symbols having only a few alternatives have been made into an alphabet. The man who undoubtedly wrote the first proper description of such a code was Sir Francis Bacon.

Bacon was primarily interested in ciphers, and in 1605 wrote “Of the Advancement of Learning” which describes vaguely a cipher termed OMNIA PER OMNIA, the best possible, and mentions that it is quintuple infolded but gives no useful details. In 1623 he described this cipher precisely in “De Augmentibus Scientiarum” written in Latin. Fortunately, a contemporary English translation exists, prepared by Gilbert Wats in 1640, and facsimiles of the important pages are shown in Figure 1.1.

Bacon claims that he invented this cipher himself, observing that if a binary property is used, then five symbols give 32 alternatives (25) which is sufficient for 24 letters of the alphabet (v and j were not separate at that time). He then constructed two slightly different type fonts, assigning to each type font one of the binary alternatives. Then, by using these two separate sets of type he made each five letters of an innocent message carry five binary digits which identified one letter of the ciphered message. It will be noticed in Fig. 1.1 that if we replace a by 0 and b by 1 that the simple binary sequence is obtained.

Figure 1.1 Code of Sir Francis Bacon. (a) above and (b) below

This might seem to be the point where Sir Francis Bacon leaves the story, having provided a binary code for the early telegraph engineers. Such is not the case. Bacon used another cipher (where a keyword indicates significant phrases) and in 1894 Dr. Orville W. Owen in the U.S.A. prepared the second volume of his book” The cipher story of Sir Francis Bacon” about this system, assisted by Elizabeth Wells Gallup. In the winter of 1895-6 Mrs. Gallup studied the binary cipher which has already been described, and found that it was incorporated in the first folio editions of Shakespeare’s plays. She naturally set about deciphering messages and a summary of the career of Sir Francis Bacon as revealed in them in Ref. 2. If the deciphered messages are true, then history books need a complete revision for the period of Elizabeth 1.

The various ciphered messages may be summed up as follows:-

Elizabeth, while imprisoned in the Tower, married Leicester secretly and gave birth to two children, the first Francis Bacon, the second Richard Deveraux, afterwards Earl of Essex.  Francis was cared for from birth by Mistress Ann Bacon, and was reared and educated as the son of Nicholas Bacon (Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England). At sixteen he found out his true parentage, and was sent to France, returning two years later. In Mrs. Gallup’s own words, “The proofs are overwhelming and irresistible that Bacon was the author of the delightful lines attributed to Spencer – the fantastic conceits of Peele and Greene – the historical romances of Marlowe – the immortal plays and poems put forth in Shakespeare’s name, as well as the Anatomy of Melancholy by Burton”.

There is no point joining the argument* as to the truth or otherwise of Mrs Gallup’s decipherment: in Vol. III her publishers give a summary of her career and show that she was not a person to promote false knowledge lightly. During one spell in the British Museum she damaged her eyesight, partly by overwork and partly by the poor lighting. Three things are worth noting however.

*However, the news is not so good, since The Shakespearean Ciphers Examined: An analysis of cryptographic systems used as evidence that some author other than William Shakespeare wrote the plays commonly attributed to him, OUP, William F. Friedman 2011 suggests (I believe) that the notion of a typographical code in print was impractical given the state of typesetting in Elizabethan England.

## CIPHERS

Bacon, from childhood, was intended for a public career. At that time all diplomatic, and much personal correspondence was committed to cipher. Among the substantial benefits incurred upon mankind by Bacon was the invention, while in France, of what is known as Baconian or Bi-lateral Cipher, which is adaptable to a multitude of means and uses. It may not be generally known that this Cipher is the basis of nearly every alphabetical code in use in telegraphy, and in the signal service of the world. It is in brief, an alphabet which requires only two unlike things for its operation. These may be two slightly differing fonts of type on a printed page, as illustrated in the example given at length in his De Augmentis, published not long before his death; or it may be a dot or a slight disfigurement in a single font, or the alternating dot and dash or short and long sound space of the Morse telegraphic code, or the alternating long and short flash of light as in the heliographic system; the “wig-wag” of a flag or signal light, or two coloured lights alternately displayed; in short any means whatever alternating two unlike or unequal signs, sounds, motions or things. Under the rules of of arithmetrical progression almost innumerable alphabets can be constructed, by these means undecipherable without its particular key. It has no limitations upon its usefulness, and has never been surpassed in security, ingenuity or simplicity. Bacon himself called this the Omnia-per-omnia, the all-in-all cipher, and the name is completely descriptive [though bi-literal in now used-ED].

(Extract from Ref. 2)

The second point of interest is a forward in volume 3 by Mrs Gallup’s publishers which contains the statement “she has either deciphered it from the labors of Francis Bacon, or it is a creation of her own. There is no middle ground”. The idea of signal/noise ratio would not be familiar in 1910, and we ought to just check that the deciphered messages have a low probability of being “noise” generated between two different type fonts used at random.

It turns out that the publishers were correct, since Mrs Gallup deciphered 500 pages, all intelligible and consistent, giving perhaps 30,000 letter (coded) or 150,000 letters in the original plays. this situation can only arise once in 2150,000 or 1050,000, and it is obvious that lopping off a few 0’s for various reasons will not make the noise hypothesis tenable.

It may seem strange that Mrs Gallup’s work has left such a small impression: her name will not be found in its alphabetical place in the Encyclopedia Britannica for instance. It appears that her work is considered erroneous by scholars because one of her decipherments was a particular translation which did not exist in Bacon’s time3. Whatever the truth of this, Mrs Gallup’s book is interesting, the fascinating part of the story (to an electrical engineer) being that all this evidence in the Bacon v. Shakespeare controversy was written down in five digit binary code.

Although direct evidence is hard to find, there seems little doubt that Gauss was the man who applied Bacon’s code to a telegraph system, date around 1833. It does not seem that Gauss deviated from his other work for long enough to describe this work in detail: reference 7 states that Gauss and Weber proposed the five-digit code for telegraphy, and 1833 is given as the date, but the only paper published by Gauss and Weber at that time was on Terrestrial Magnetism

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