## OpenAI: Problems for Research using ChatGPT

I asked the chatbot a series of questions which homed in on a key problem with the chatbot. The problem was that the chatbot thinks that an 819-day period can equal the 260-day period of the Maya calendar period of 260 days.

#### how does the 819-day period interact with the 260-day Tzolkin?

The 819-day period is the length of a full cycle of the Tzolkin, which is a 260-day sacred and divinatory cycle in the Maya calendar system.

The Tzolkin is formed by the combination of two smaller cycles: a 13-day cycle and a 20-day cycle. Each day in the Tzolkin is represented by a unique pair of glyphs, resulting in a total of 260 possible combinations. The Tzolkin was used for divination, determining the best times for planting crops, making decisions, and performing rituals.

The interaction between the 819-day period and the 260-day Tzolkin is that every 819 days, the Tzolkin cycle completes a full cycle of 260 days, which means that the same combination of the 13-day and 20-day cycles repeats. In other words, every 819 days, the Maya believed that the energies and personalities associated with each of the 260 possible combinations of glyphs would repeat.

This repetition was seen as a symbol of the cyclical nature of time and the universe by the ancient Maya. The Tzolkin was also used to calculate longer periods of time, such as the Haab’ (365-day) calendar and the Calendar Round (a 52-year cycle), which were used for agricultural and religious purposes.

ChatCPT is an artificial intelligence (AI) system which is language based, so that it apparently does not apparently check any mathematical consistency, and this makes it possible for such an error impossible to humans who know that one number never equals another, by definition.

In some areas this AI appears superb, for example in summarizing an issue such as

#### What were the deficiencies of the Short Stirling Bomber?

The Short Stirling was a British four-engined heavy bomber aircraft used by the Royal Air Force (RAF) during World War II. While it was an important aircraft in the early years of the war, it was ultimately replaced by more advanced designs. The Stirling had several deficiencies that limited its effectiveness, including:

1. Range: The Stirling had a limited range, which made it difficult to reach targets deep in Germany. This was due in part to its large size and weight, which made it less efficient than other bombers in terms of fuel consumption.
2. Payload: Despite its large size, the Stirling had a relatively small bomb load compared to other heavy bombers of the time. This limited its effectiveness as a strategic bomber.
3. Maneuverability: The Stirling was not very maneuverable, which made it vulnerable to enemy fighters. This was partly due to its size and weight, which made it slower and less agile than other aircraft.
4. Maintenance: The Stirling was difficult to maintain, which meant that it spent more time on the ground than in the air. This limited its operational effectiveness and made it more vulnerable to attack while on the ground.
5. Visibility: The Stirling had poor visibility from the cockpit, which made it difficult for the crew to spot enemy fighters and defend the aircraft.

Overall, the Stirling was an important aircraft for the RAF during the early years of World War II, but its deficiencies limited its effectiveness as the war progressed. It was ultimately replaced by more advanced designs, such as the Avro Lancaster and the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.

Of course it may have found one or more perfect answers to this question.

#### Ancestry

But in another area, more serious errors came for ancestry research where it can confuse a name and date with another well-formed biography for inexplicable reasons. My wife has a relative Charles Samuel Weston, a family description of whom exists. He was significant as a soldier in colonial India but asking of him first gave:

Charles Samuel Weston (1821-1880) was a British engineer who made important contributions to the development of the telegraph and submarine cables.

Weston was born in Bristol, England and worked as an apprentice at a local brass works before starting his own engineering business. He became interested in the telegraph and developed a number of innovations that improved the reliability and efficiency of telegraph systems.

One of Weston’s most important contributions was the development of a new type of battery, known as the “gravity cell,” which was used to power telegraph systems. The gravity cell was more efficient and reliable than other batteries of the time, and it became widely used in telegraphy and other applications.

Weston also played a key role in the development of submarine telegraph cables, which were used to transmit messages across the Atlantic Ocean and other bodies of water. He developed a number of innovations that helped to make submarine cables more reliable and efficient, including a new type of cable insulation and a system for detecting breaks in the cable.

In addition to his work in engineering, Weston was also a noted philanthropist who supported a number of charitable causes. He died in 1880 at the age of 59.

In changing the date of death to 1909, which is correct,

I apologize for my previous response – there appears to be some confusion regarding the dates of Charles Samuel Weston.

Charles Samuel Weston (1821-1909) was a British engineer and inventor who made significant contributions to the development of the electric telegraph and the submarine cable.

Born in Bristol, England, Weston began his career working as an apprentice at a brass foundry before starting his own business as a mechanical engineer. He became interested in the telegraph and made several important improvements to telegraph systems, including developing a more reliable and efficient battery known as the Weston cell.

etc, then Weston died in London in 1909 at the age of 88.

Before this he had been an administrator who introduced taxation to India, established university, and so on. Compelling but false, and so showing an excellent ability to invent plausible biographies based upon fragments of existing biographical texts.

Charles Samuel Weston was a British civil servant who served in India during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He played an important role in the administration of the British Raj, particularly in the areas of finance and taxation.

Weston began his career in India in the mid-1880s, working in the Madras Presidency as a deputy collector of customs and salt. He quickly rose through the ranks, serving in various administrative and financial positions in Madras and other parts of the country.

One of Weston’s most significant contributions to British rule in India was his work on the Indian Income Tax Act of 1886. This legislation established a system of income taxation in India, which helped to provide a stable source of revenue for the British government and modernize the Indian economy.

In addition to his work on taxation, Weston was also involved in various other aspects of British administration in India. He served as a member of the Viceroy’s Legislative Council and as a member of the Indian Finance Committee. He was also involved in the establishment of several government institutions in India, including the Imperial Bank of India and the Indian Institute of Science.

Overall, Charles Samuel Weston played an important role in the British Raj in India, helping to modernize the Indian economy and establish systems of governance and taxation that would shape the country for years to come.

#### Who is Richard Heath?

Richard Heath is a writer, researcher, and speaker who is known for his work on ancient cultures, mythology, and symbolism. He has written several books, including “Sacred Number and the Origins of Civilization”, “The Harmonic Origins of the World”, and “Matrix of Creation: Sacred Geometry in the Realm of the Planets”.

Heath’s work explores the connections between ancient sacred sites, mythology, and the principles of sacred geometry and numerology. He has studied the geometry and symbolism of numerous ancient sites around the world, including Stonehenge, the Great Pyramid of Giza, and the temples of ancient Egypt.

Heath’s work has been praised for its interdisciplinary approach, combining insights from archaeology, anthropology, mythology, and geometry. His research has also been influential in the fields of alternative history and alternative archaeology.

In addition to his writing and research, Heath has also given lectures and workshops on topics related to sacred geometry, ancient wisdom, and symbolism.

I need to say that this was remarkable unless it knows I am asking, since there are many Richard Heaths both living and dead including a congressman, Victorian author, furniture shop and so on. One can say this is a novel type of searching which is more interesting and humanistic despite being detached from some kinds of definitional rigour found in non-language artificial intelligence, for instance that 260-days cannot equal 819-days. Many Maya textbooks are not available online so that exotic periodicities, in books like

Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore and Calendars (The Linda Schele Series in Maya and Pre-Columbian Studies) by Susan Milbrath are somewhat hidden to AI while articles such as Scientists Think They’ve Finally Figured Out How a Maya Calendar Works will feature the 819-day period, and other articles will lie behind paywalls. This latter article is not as pedagogical as I have found it necessary to be regarding numbers in ancient calendrical contexts. That is, on a Monday morning, I find it likely that the logic is itself obscure to a general audience. I will endeavour to post on this article this week.

## Origins of the Olmec/Maya Number Sciences

ABOVE: Stela C from Tres Zapotes roughly rebuilt by Ludovic Celle and based on a drawing by Miguel Covarrubias.

#### Introduction

The policy of archaeology regarding the Maya and their root progenitor the Olmec (1500 BCE onwards) is that its cultural innovations were made within Mexico alongside an agrarian revolution of the three sisters, namely squash, maize (“corn”), and climbing beans. This relationship of agriculture to civilizing skills then reads like the Neolithic revolution in Mesopotamia after 4000 BCE, where irrigation made the fertile loam able to absorb agricultural innovations from the northern golden triangle leading to writing, trade, city states, religion, arithmetic and so on. However, the idea that the ancient near east or India could have been an influence through ocean conveyors, of currents and trade winds, has never been accepted when proposed. Yet there are good reasons to think this since the astronomy and monumentalism of the pre-Columbian Mexican civilizations has precedents in the ancient near east and other locations.

The timing of the Olmec and the strangeness of immediately building sacred cities with an almost captive population of around 10,000 people, such as La Venta and San Lorenzo, with strong Jaguar imagery and practices, implies a cultic basis was present from the beginning. And it is now looking likely that the ancient near east was similarly prefigured, not just by agriculture but also by know how involving numbers for the building of sacred buildings with astronomical aspects – a tradition that goes back at least to the megalithic of the Atlantic seaboard of Europe.

Since Columbus, the native populations of North and South America have been largely displaced or marginalized. It may be for this reason that the notion that people from an advanced population had initiated the Olmec civilization requires a high, possibly impossible, level of proof. This Isolationism***, perhaps to avoid “adding insult to injury”, is against the Olmec having derived from the Old World, where the historical records are not that much better. The Olmec origin date is around the time of the quite sudden collapse of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean around 1200 BCE. And the Olmec, Maya and Aztec appear to have had a definite myth concerning someone called Quetzelcoatl bringing civilizing skills to found their culture, though their culture was also seen as arising from a group of seven underground caves.

***The opposite of Diffusionism: Diffusionism is an anthropological school of thought, was an attempt to understand the distribution of culture in terms of the origin of culture traits and their spread from one society to another. Versions of diffusionist thought included the conviction that all cultures originated from one culture center (heliocentric diffusion); the more reasonable view that cultures originated from a limited number of culture centers (culture circles); and finally the notion that each society is influenced by others but that the process of diffusion is both [subject to chance] and arbitrary . read more

#### Long Counts and The LUNAR Calendar

Having sketched this background, this article will explore a strange coincidence between the calendrical origins of the Megalithic in Brittany, of a 36 lunar month, 3 lunar year calendar, and the 18 month calendar found in the some of the later Olmec Great Counts, called after the Supplementary Glyphs appended to record the local time in an 18 lunar month calendar. The correlation between long counts and the supplementary data has been invaluable since the long counts can be ambiguous between one or more possible dates but we can predict the sun and moon that far back can compare the glyphs with the alternative dates. Counts have also been found that were eclipses of the sun or moon, resolving a given long count date. It is therefoe interesting to compare the two calendars using the geometrical fact that 36 lunar months is both 2 x 18, 4 x 9 and 3 x 12 since 36 is 4 x 3 x3.

The implication is that the megalithic calendar over three years, which was based upon noticing that three solar years was the diagonal of a four square triangle whose side length is three lunar years, appears to have resulted in an Olmec/Maya calendar in which each square is 9 lunar months. As was noted in previous books (2004, 2016, 2018), the range 9 to 18 years contains a single lunar month {12}, the Jupiter synod {13.5}, the Saturn synod {12.8} and the Uranus synod {12.5}. This octave range between 9 and 2 x 9 = 18 was therefore possible to manifest as a Mexican city design (Teotihuacan) and as the Parthenon of Athens. A number of other examples can be found as one of the proposed major models used from the megalithic onwards, as discussed in Sacred Number: Language of the Angels (2021).

## Introduction to my book Harmonic Origins of the World

Over the last seven thousand years, hunter-gathering humans have been transformed into the “modern” norms of citizens (city dwellers) through a series of metamorphoses during which the intellect developed ever-larger descriptions of the world. Past civilizations and even some tribal groups have left wonders in their wake, a result of uncanny skills – mental and physical – which, being hard to repeat today, cannot be considered primitive. Buildings such as Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid of Giza are felt anomalous, because of the mathematics implied by their construction. Our notational mathematics only arose much later and so, a different maths must have preceded ours.

We have also inherited texts from ancient times. Spoken language evolved before there was any writing with which to create texts. Writing developed in three main ways: (1) Pictographic writing evolved into hieroglyphs, like those of Egyptian texts, carved on stone or inked onto papyrus, (2) the Sumerians used cross-hatched lines on clay tablets, to make symbols representing the syllables within speech. Cuneiform allowed the many languages of the ancient Near East to be recorded, since all spoken language is made of syllables, (3) the Phoenicians developed the alphabet, which was perfected in Iron Age Greece through identifying more phonemes, including the vowels. The Greek language enabled individual writers to think new thoughts through writing down their ideas; a new habit that competed with information passed down through the oral tradition. Ironically though, writing down oral stories allowed their survival, as the oral tradition became more-or-less extinct. And surviving oral texts give otherwise missing insights into the intellectual life behind prehistoric monuments.

Continue reading “Introduction to my book Harmonic Origins of the World”

## Sacred Number and the Lords of Time

#### Back Cover

ANCIENT MYSTERIES

“Heath has done a superb job of collating his own work on the subject of megaliths with the objective views of many other researchers in the field. I therefore do not merely recommend reading this book but can state unequivocally it is a must read.”
–John Neal, British metrologist and researcher and author of Measuring the Megaliths and The Structure of Metrology

“In Sacred Number and the Lords of Time we have an important explanation of how megalithic science was developed. This book is a long-overdue wakeup call to a modern culture that has abandoned this fully developed and astonishingly rich prehistoric model of the physical world. The truth is now out.”
–Robin Heath, coauthor of The Lost Science of Measuring the Earth and author of Sun, Moon and Earth

Continue reading “Sacred Number and the Lords of Time”