The Geocentric Planetary Matrix

Harmonic Origins of the World inserted the astronomical observations of my previous books into an ancient harmonic matrix, alluded to through the harmonic numbers found in many religious stories, and also through the cryptic works of Plato. Around 355 BC, Plato’s dialogues probably preserved what Pythagoras had learnt from ancient mystery centers of his day, circa. 600 BC.

According to the late Ernest G. McClain*, Plato’s harmonic matrices had been widely practiced by initiates of the Ancient Near East so that, to the general population, they were entertaining and uplifting stories set within eternity while, to the initiated, the stories were a textbook in harmonic tuning. The reason harmonic tuning theory should have infiltrated cosmological or theological ideas was the fact that, the planets surrounding Earth express the most fundamental musical ratios, the tones and semitones found within octave scales.

* American musicologist and writer, in the 1970s,
of The Pythagorean Plato and The Myth of Invariance.

Ancient prose narratives and poetic allusions were often conserving ancient knowledge of this planetary harmony; significant because these ratios connect human existence to the world of Eternity. In this sense the myths of gods, heros and mortals had been a natural reflection of harmonic worlds in heaven, into the life of the people.

In the Greece before the invention of phonetic writing, oral or spoken stories such as those attributed to Homer and Hesiod were performed in public venues giving rise to the amphitheaters and stepped agoras of Greek towns. Special performers or rhapsodes animated epic stories of all sorts and some have survived through their being written down.

At the same time, alongside this journey towards genuine literacy, new types of sacred buildings and spaces emerged, these also carrying the sacred numbers and measures of the megalithic to Classical Greece, Rome, Byzantium and elsewhere, including India and China.

The Heraion of Samos, late 8th century BC. [figure 5.9 of Sacred Geometry: Language of the Angels.]

Work towards a fuller harmonic matrix for the planets

In my first book, called Matrix of Creation, I had not yet assimilated McClain’s books, but had identified the musical intervals between the lunar year and the geocentric periodicities of the outer planets. To understand what was behind the multiple numerical relationships within the geocentric world of time, I started drawing out networks of those periods and, as I looked at all the relationships (or interval ratios) between them, I could see common denominators and multiples linking the celestial time periods through small intermediary and whole numbers: numbers which became sacred for later civilizations. For example, the 9/8 relationship between the Jupiter synod and the lunar year could be more easily grasped in a diagram revealing a larger structural network, visualized as a “matrix diagram” (see figure 1).

Figure 1 Matrix Diagram of Jupiter and the Moon. figure 9.5 of Matrix of Creation, p117.

One can see the common unit of 1.5 lunar months, at the base of the diagram, and a symmetrical period at the apex lasting 108 lunar months or 9 lunar years (referencing the Maya supplemental glyphs). In due course, I re-discovered the use of the Lambda diagram of Plato (figure 8.7), and even stumbled upon the higher register of five tones (figure 2) belonging to the Mexican flying serpent, Quetzalcoatl (as figure 8.1), made up of [Mercury, the eclipse year, the Tzolkin, Mars and Venus], Venus also being called Quetzalcoatl.

Figure 2 My near discovery of Quetzalcoatl, in fig. 8.1 of Matrix of Creation

These periodicities are of adjacent musical fifths (ratio 3/2), which would eventually be shown as connected to the corresponding register of the outer planets, using McClain’s harmonic technology in my 5th book Harmonic Origins of the World (see figure 3).

Probably called the flying serpent by dynastic Egypt, Quetzalcoatl’s set of musical fifths was part of the Mexican mysteries of the Olmec and Maya civilizations (1500 BC to 800 AD). This serpent flies 125/128 above the inner planets – for example, the eclipse season is 125/128 above the lunar year: 354.367 days × 125/128 = 346 days, requiring I integrate the two serpents within McClain’s harmonic matrices in Harmonic Origins of the World (as figure 9.3).

  • Uranus is above Saturn
  • The eclipse year is above the lunar year
  • the Tzolkin of 260 days is above the 9 lunar months of Adam
Figure 3 The two harmonic serpents of “Heaven” and “Earth”

By my 6th book, Sacred Geometry: Language of the Angels, I had realized that the numerical design within which our “living planet” sits is a secondary creation – created after the solar system, yet it was discovered before the heliocentric creation of the solar system, exactly because the megalithic observed the planets from the Earth. Instead of proposing the existence of a progenitor civilization with high knowledge** I instead proposed, as more likely, that the megalithic was the source of the ancient mysteries. Such mysteries then only seem mysterious because; a kind of geocentric science before our own heliocentric one seems anachronistic.

**such as Atlantis as per Plato’s Timaeus: an island destroyed by vulcanism, Atlantis and similar solutions have simply “kicked the can down the road” into an as-yet-poorly-charted prehistory before 5000 BC, for which less evidence exists because there never was any. In contrast, the sky astronomy and earth measures of the megalithic are to be found referenced in later monuments and ancient textual references. That is, megalithic monuments recorded an understanding of the cosmos then found in the ancient mysteries. A geocentric world view was a naturally result of the megalithic, achieved using the numbers they found through geocentric observations, counting lengths of time, using horizon events and the mathematical properties of simple geometries.

Geo-centrism was the current world view until superseded by the Copernican heliocentric view. This new solar system was soon found by 1680 to be held together by natural gravitational forces between large planetary masses, forces discovered by Sir Isaac Newton. The subsequent primacy of heliocentrism, which started 500 years ago, caused humanity to lose contact with the geocentric model of the world: though figure 4 has the planets in the correct order for the the two serpents, of inner and outer planets, this is also (largely) the heliocentric order, if one but swaps the sun and the moon-earth system.

All references to an older and original form of astronomy, based upon numerical time and forged by the megalithic, was thus dislocated and obscured by our heliocentric physical science and astronomy of the modern day – which still knows nothing of the geocentric order that surrounds us.

Figure 4 The Geocentric Model by 1660

The geocentric model entered Greek astronomy and philosophy at an early point; it can be found in pre-Socratic philosophy … In the 4th century BC, two influential Greek philosophers, Plato and his student Aristotle, wrote works based on the geocentric model. According to Plato, the Earth was a sphere, stationary at the center of the universe.

Wikipedia: “Geocentric model”

The Richard Syrett Interviews on Sacred Geometry: Language of the Angels

I recently recorded a podcast with Richard Syrett and will be talking with him again today (January 2nd) on Coast to Coast, starting 10pm Pacific time. In the UK, this is tomorrow (Sunday the 3rd) at 6am GMT. Both these interviews are in response to my new book Sacred Geometry: Language of the Angels, which goes on release Monday 4th of January 2021.

Ways of Purchasing: This large-format book, richly illustrated in color throughout, can be seen in the sidebar (on mobiles, below the tag cloud) or visit Inner Traditions.

On the Harmonic Origins of the World

After the ice receded, late Stone Age people developed the farming crucial to the development of cities in the Ancient Near East (ANE). On the Atlantic coast of Europe, they also developed a now-unfamiliar science involving horizon astronomy. Megalithic monuments were the tools they used for this, some still seen in the coastal regions of present day Spain, France, Britain and Ireland. Megalithic astronomy was an exact science and this conflicts with our main myth about our science: that ours is the only true science, founded through many historical prerequisites such as arithmetic and writing in the ancient near east (3000- 1200 BC) and theory-based reasoning in Classical Greece (circa 400-250 BC), to name but two. Unbeknownst to us, the first “historical period” in the near east was seeded by the exact sciences of the megalithic, such as the accurate measurement of counted lengths of time, developed by the prehistoric astronomers. With the megalithic methods came knowledge and discoveries, and one discovery was of the harmonic ratios between the planets and the Moon.

The idea that the planets were gods had been born before the ancient world, through the data of megalithic astronomy and this megalithic idea was the basis for the religious ideas of the East. Megalithic astronomy and Near Eastern religious and harmonic ideas have both been written out of our history of civilization, leaving us with enigmatic monuments and ill-defined religious mysteries. How this slighting of our real history happened is perhaps less important than our discovering again the purpose of the megalithic monuments and of those religious ideas that sprang from the discovery that the planets were harmonically related to life on Earth.

Le Menec Alignments indicate a profound astronomical work in the new stone age by 5000-4000 BC. Composite mash up by David Blake using Blender, Google Earth elevation and imagery plus Alexander Thom geometry and digitized stone locations.

Is human history lacking something fundamental?

The Harmonic Origins of the World first explores this alternative late stone age, the megalithic, as more culturally significant than the advent of Neolithic farming. But ironically, the megalithic culture has been eclipsed by the history-building developments of the middle-eastern civilisations, all because intellectual histories could only start when written records began within the civilizations. Writing did not make people literate and they still relied on an oral tradition of story-telling which had descended from the stone age. But writing did record the oral stories which became our texts.

Subsequent civilisations changed the civilized soul, through contact with the material cultures necessary to support urbanisation: written records, accountancy, religious ideas, reason and most recently our own science and technology. To get closer to the meaning of the megalithic enterprise, one must recognise that its primary cultural norm was astronomical. Numbers were sublimated as counted lengths, these representing the duration of celestial cycles where days were counted using small standardised units such as a digit or inch. This counting of time, to form a length where numbers were then implicit, enabled the geometry of the right triangle to also sublimate the multiplicative and trigonometrical functions used, in our mathematics, to calculate. Today’s methods for studying astronomy are therefore completely different to those of the megalithic: we don’t look to the horizon, count lengths or use geometry to compare. Therefore 20th century science has vastly underestimated the scope, sophistication and significance of megalithic astronomical knowledge.

Why was Religion astronomical?

The religious thoughts that subsequently emerged in the ANE were mainly based upon the celestial heavens; where the planets, sun and moon were gods responsible for the creation of the world. Our word religion expresses the notion of a human effort to reconnect with a cosmic world above our heads. Ancient religion had a sacred basis that was kept secret from the ordinary man and this established the division between the secular and the sacred which still exists today. The most direct way of explaining why ancient religions sought to connect with gods, literally in heaven, is to see in it the product of a prior age in which the heavenly world was intensively studied so as to understand the behaviour of the celestial bodies within a heavenly world of time, as where something divine is happening. This work must have predated the earliest historical civilisations. No written record of megalithic astronomy has ever been found so that only the monuments can speak of it, if we understand their astronomical language of number and proportion.

By 3000 BC, the Sumerians had inherited fully developed astronomically-based religious ideas in their oral traditions (such as Gilgamesh, then fortunately written down on cuneiform tablets.) Thus, whilst the megalithic was reaching a zenith in Europe, the great historical civilisations recorded beliefs that could only have evolved from their concrete astronomical knowledge of the heavens, an activity brought uniquely to a high level of sophistication by the builders of the megaliths. But why were astronomical truths used as a basis for religious thought? To understand this requires we re-interpret the megalithic record, a record largely concerned with discovering the time-patterns of the sun and moon.

Astronomical Ratios are the Matrix of Creation

The pattern of time formed by planets can be found within the stories and symbols of the historic period, but the techniques for finding this pattern only existed in the megalithic period as it must have been based upon measuring ratios between time periods. Planetary time ratios naturally lead to a pantheistic insight; that the planets are gods, instrumental in the creation and maintenance of the world.

The megalithic established the ratio (between counted lengths) of the lunar to solar years, as the basis of their astronomy, and this approach was then crucial to understanding the musical pattern of time formed by the planets to the moon (as per figure 3).

Figure 1 The collision with Theia with the proto-Earth leading to the creation of our Moon. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]

The moon was formed after the collision of a proto-earth with a smaller Mars-like planet, as the inner solar system was coalescing its solid matter into the present inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Billions of years later, the moon achieved an orbital distance from the earth that made the lunar year (of twelve lunar months) musically resonant with the three outer planets. The lunar year formed a tone (9/8) to the synod[1] of Jupiter, a diatonic semitone (16/15) to the synod of Saturn and a chromatic semitone (25/24) to the synod of Uranus.

Figure 2 The synods of the outer planets based upon the earth’s orbit make it possible, numerically, for the lunar year to evoke three of the most significant musical intervals. Earth’s orbit and the Sun’s illumination of the Moon have achieved the required lunar year length of 120, where twelve is the number of semitones in an octave, and notes on a keyboard.

For the ratios of these outer planets to relate to the lunar year requires the ratios of their sidereal periods to already have the possibility of achieving this musical resonance, when viewed from Earth’s orbital year. Figure 2 shows the situation within which the synods of the outer planets are themselves expressing lesser-known musical intervals between each other. Saturn is the common factor of 128 units of time in length to Jupiter’s 135 units and to Uranus’s 125 units. It is these numbers in ratio that enable the lunar year to achieve a duration of 120 units and, since the lunar year is made up of 12 lunar months, these units of time are one tenth of a lunar month long or 2.953 days.

Forming the Cosmic Octave

The optical discovery of Uranus in ancient times is dubious, but we can assume that the synods of Jupiter and Saturn became known to a megalithic astronomy which, as already stated, specialised in measuring time periods and in comparing these to other time periods, using trigonometrical triangles.

Figure 3 The harmonic ratios between the nearest three outer planets and the lunar year. The four-square rectangle with long side equal to the lunar year gives, geometrically, the solar year as its diagonal length. The outer planetary synods are longer since the planets have moved ahead of their last opposition to the sun, at which time they appear to perform a loop amongst the stars

Figure 3 shows how megalithic use of triangular comparison would have revealed the common factor, of 1/10th of a lunar orbit, between the outer planets, namely the Jupiter synod is 13.5 lunar months, that of Saturn is 12.8 lunar months (and that of Uranus is 12.5 lunar months.)

The Gods of the Ancient World

This was the principle discovery on which ancient speculation, that the planets were gods, was based. These same lords of time were celebrated in the New World, after the Bronze Age collapse of 1200 BC in the Old World, firstly with the Olmec and subsequently the Maya and Aztec religions of Mesoamerica. Passed on from the Ancient Near East, Olmec religious ideas contained elements soon suppressed in the Old World. Numerical tuning theory was closer to its astronomical origins before 1200 BC so that, the fantastic information placed into mythic stories could still be read with regard to the harmonic numbers referred to in stories. These numbers could be abnormally long ages or reigns, the numbers of things, the number of syllables or stanzas, and so on. Ancient myths hold many astronomical and harmonic allusions which have long puzzled scholars unable to find the missing link in the megalithic.

A couple of seminal books on this subject emerged simultaneously with similarly challenging proposals. In Hamlet’s Mill (1969) the Precession of the Equinoxes (and of the earth’s Poles) was shown to be a common theme within myths and; in The Myth of Invariance (1976), Plato’s tuning theory was shown to be “the tip of an iceberg” of ancient harmonic allegory: both books implied there had been a near world-wide oral tradition that had incorporated such matters in their epic works.

For example, the Bible has a flood hero called Noah, reused from those of Marduk in Babylon and Indra in the Rig Veda. Precession was considered the creator of world ages, that is, of History itself; and the great numbers of India expressed time as a harmonic ceiling for an octave, such as 8,640,000,000 – a number which turns up in many traditions, for example the Edda’s final battle of the gods, and the design of Angkor Wat. The Bible significantly starts with a smaller number, the first man is called Adam, whose name in letter-number equivalence is 1 + 4 + 40 = 45 when added whilst in place notation he is 1,440, which is 32 x 45. This takes us back to the Moon.

Music from the Moon

If one wants to generate a harmonic ceiling for the lunar year and outer planets, whose numbers are 120, 128 and 135, Adam as 45 must be doubled twice to 180, the age at which Isaac, son of patriarch Abraham, dies. This implies that the lunar year lies within a harmonic system of 18 lunar months, which is exactly the time period of the Olmec and Maya Supplemental Glyphs, sometimes added to their Long Count marking upon stela (engraved standing stones) as if these cultures had derived from the megalithic. The Olmec appear to carry forth parts of the intellectual life of megalithic times otherwise lost to the historic record. The Bible writers were evidently privy to this harmonic tradition which seems to have travelled alongside an oral tradition, lost though cryptically recorded by the genuine literacy of Plato’s age, in texts and secret Pythagorean groups.

If one factorises the numbers 120, 128 and 135, one can place them according to the presence of prime numbers 2, 3 and 5, since it is these primes which form the musical intervals between tones:

CyclePowers of 2× powers of 3× powers of 5Total
Lunar Year835120
Saturn128  128
Jupiter 275135

One can see that the lunar year and Jupiter synod both have the factor 5 whilst they differ in two ways; by 9 (3 x 3) and by 8, hence the interval 9/8 between them. Saturn differs in three ways from the lunar year; by 16 (128/8), and by both 3 and 5, hence the interval 16/15 between them.

The writers of the Bible raised Isaac up from 180 through reproductive doubling to 360 (x 2), then 720 (x 4) to reach the fullest extent of Adam’s name, namely 1440 (x 8), meaning we must multiply these planetary numbers by 8 to become 960, 1024 and 1080 – numbers which have rich meaning in ancient number symbolism. They can be viewed on a mountain made of increasing powers of 2, 3 and 5 under the 1440 limit (figure 4) and this mountain uses units one 80th instead of one 10th of a lunar month.

Figure 4 Adam becomes 1440 and shows where the outer planets are, harmonically. Such mountains were used to tell a story that maintained the harmonic doctrine whilst providing cultural and religious stories. (http://harmonicexplorer.org#1440)

One 80th of the lunar month of 29.53 days is 0.369 days, which times 1000 is the synod of Uranus (starts 4th row), the air god Enlil, who launched floods to cleanse the earth of human wickedness. The Bible replaced him with YHWH and the seven planetary gods were removed from the week, numbering weekdays rather than deifying them as of the god, as per; “Thou shalt have no other gods before me”. And yet, the harmonic doctrine still lay behind the outer biblical narrative, secretly informing it.

This situation is repeated in many ancient texts and in many different ways. The widespread insertion of harmonic numbers within literary texts gives three rows of darker notes around D a special capacity to form musical scales. In this case the gematria limit for Adam of 1440, gives him the ability to play five modal scales, some of the notes having these planetary numbers.

This type of work was originally deduced from some of Plato’s dialogues, seen as a codification of the ancient methods by Ernest G McClain, who wrote The Myth of Invariance to illustrate its widespread use in the ancient world. I have continued in this rich vein whilst connecting McClain’s work with my own work: on megalithic astronomy and discovery (in 2000) of the musical intervals between the lunar year and the outer planets.

Bringing it all together

The Harmonic Origins of the World is the latest exploration of this domain, revealing some famous figures in ancient myth, through visualising their “holy” mountains whilst introducing how practical musical scales work on these mountains. The significance of McClain’s work is deepened through the restoration of an important missing history which can explain why our oldest texts, often religious, are peppered with harmonic numbers. And part of that missing history is that harmony between the lunar year and outer planets has arisen relatively recently, alongside the modern humans of the last 200,000 years.

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FURTHER INFORMATION: There is a category for both Planetary Harmony and an extended search including relevant tags, and a tag cloud on each page.


[1] Synodic periods are the time taken for the Earth to again stand between that outer planet and the Sun, longer than a year because the planets are slowly moving during the solar year. These synods therefore only apply to those living on the surface of the Earth. The synods are: lunar month 29.53059 days; lunar year 354.367 days; Jupiter synod 398.88 days; Saturn synod 378.09 days; Uranus synod 369.66 days

Jupiter’s gravitational and numerical influence

This post begins a Theme relating to the Trigon event occurring on 21st December 2020, when Jupiter and Saturn are conjunct at dusk in the sky. This touches upon what such synchronicities mean for other long term periods seen from Earth, such as the Moon’s nodal period of 6800 days and even the Precession of the Equinoxes over 25,800 ± 120 years.

Jupiter is the second largest body in the solar system next to the sun itself. In fact, Jupiter is not far short of being a sun itself and, being the closest giant planet to the Earth, our planet is strongly influenced by Jupiter’s gravity which, unlike the Sun’s continuous pull to maintain Earth’s orbit around it, Jupiter pulls upon the Earth and the Moon on an episodic basis when the Earth is passing between the Sun and Jupiter.

The Trigon Period of Jupiter and Saturn

Being a dark, planetary body, the episodic pull of Jupiter follows a different pattern to each of the inner, terrestrial planets; Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, since each has a different orbital period which, combined with Jupiter’s orbit, brings each under Jupiter’s influence or absence. The combined episodic pull of Jupiter and Saturn, is visually seen in their conjuction every 20 years, which occurs just over a third of the Zodiac onwards, thus giving a cosmic significance to the equilateral triangle as a sacred geometry.

Figure 1 The series of Trigon conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn, as will be the case on 21st December 2020

Only Earth’s large moon stops the axial tilt of the Earth from varying significantly, then causing large changes in climate which would have restricted the development of the relatively stable habitats and biomes we enjoy.

361 days: Jupiter and the Zodiac

The combination of Jupiter’s orbital period (of 4332 days) and Earth’s (of 365.2422 days) generates an interesting set of numerical facts since Jupiter passes through each of the twelve signs of the Zodiac in 361 days. This number is 19 times 19 days so that 12 times 361 days equals 4332 days. But these numbers are a product of the solar year of 365.2422 days, since the day length on Earth is 1 year divided by the 365.2422 days due to its rotation. If the day length were less or more then Jupiter’s complete orbit would still be as long but the numbers from Earth would not.

This is a major aspect of what the megalithic astronomy had to learn, that the relative time lengths of the many cosmic periods, counted in days, could be numerically interrelated when quantified. The situation of the earth orbit and its rotation would present Jupiter as a bright moving star which completed its journey through the stars in 12 times 361 days. Jupiter and the Zodiac of 12 constellations would inevitably become fused as seen in the story of Zeus, the Greek god name for Jupiter whose symbol is the twelve-fold circle. The pre-Classical Greeks were matriarchal, following the lunar month of twelve whole lunar months within the solar year and, the solar year only arose as the patriarchal northern tribes occupied Greece after the Bronze Age collapse. The name Zeus is therefore not matriarchal since the Greeks had no “Z”. Zeus arrived in ancient Greece with the tribes displaced from the North escaping the worsening climate at higher latitudes. And, whilst 12-foldness is associated with the Sun being in one of the 12 zodiacal constellations, Jupiter defines these through passing through each sign (on average) in 361 days.

399 days: Jupiter’s synodic period

Twelve-ness is a massively widespread tradition (see John Michell – Twelve-fold Tribes for instance) and the brightest celestial body next to the Sun is the Moon which expresses twelve whole lunar months a year (plus 7/19 of a lunar month). The common lunar year was therefore twelve months long, taking 354.367 days to complete, this countable between thirteen full moons. It is no accident that the 12-ness of the lunar year is connected with Jupiter’s 12-ness of its 361 day years, since the Jupiter synod has a strong grip on our moon: the synod is 9/8 lunar years long – a musical whole tone. And Saturn also has a similar grip, its synod of 378 days being 16/15 lunar years long.

When the Earth passes by Jupiter, the latter goes retrograde or backwards relative to the stars, meaning it appears to travel east night-by-night, rather than the norm for all planets (and the sun and moon) of slowly travelling west in our skies, as they orbit. During this retrograde period, the planet describes a loop in the sky relative to the stellar background, before returning to where it should be in the stars. Between the loops of Jupiter’s synodic period the 398.88 days could be counted in days. This can only mean that over millennia, the Moon became synchronised by the regular proximity of Jupiter to our moon.

Our months today have divided the solar year into twelve months of 30 or 31 days, to resemble Jupiter’s 12-fold zodiac and 12-month lunar year, the Roman emperors vying to lengthen a month and name it after themselves (examples being October after Octavius, September after Septimius and August after Augustus). And since a zodiacal sign is traversed after 361 days by its definer, it is inevitable that there are not 12 solar years in a Jupiter orbit but just less (11.86 years). However, the fact that 4332 days is not 12 times 365.2422 days accesses, through its deficit, more subtle possibilities hidden in a numerical world of differences.

Differences between periodicities, especially involving the moon that rotates the Earth, define those periods through the fact that they endlessly repeat so that differences accumulate over longer periods and when these differences are divided into the periods, a new set of numbers are generated. One could call orbital systems differential calculators and modern math would describe them as potentially discrete systems, which form due to gravitational recurrence. This idea that the planetary and lunar systems generate numbers is somewhat hidden by our modern description of such systems as subject to gravitational dynamics. The numbers allowed the ancient astronomers to discover a static numerical view of planetary astronomy through counting days. In contrast, modern astronomy calculates the location of celestial bodies from first principles; especially when trying to visit planetary bodies in spacecraft.

Before, during and after Sacred Geometry

above: Carreg Coetan Arthur portal dolmen in Newport, Pembrokeshire.

The prehistory of sacred geometry was the late stone age, when the stone circles, dolmens, and long alignments to astronomical events on the horizon, used megaliths (large stones) in geometrical ways. Their geometries served their quest to understand the heavens, without telescopes or arithmetic, by using counted time periods as geometrical lines, squares and circles. Geometry, supplemented by the days counted between alignment events, was therefore a prelude to sacred and then secular geometry.

By developing early geometrical methods, they forged an enduring cultural norm lasting millennia, as part (or not) of the more-familiar aspect of the neolithic, innovating an agricultural pastoralism, that could support settlements, cities and, only then, the great civilizations of the middle and far east. It was civilization that generated our earliest written histories; these still powering our historical context and leading the basic notion of economic progress and territorial expansion, as superior to all that went before.

Our surviving megaliths are hence deeply enigmatic, a mysterious and mute presence in a world far less mysterious. The megaliths may have something we have forgotten in a collective way, something pushed out by millennia of later ideas and now relatively recent ones too.

There seems little trace of the megalithic astronomers themselves, their geometricized landscape overlaid by our notions of a primitive Stone Age.  And, as the prelude to world history, their geometry gave birth to sacred geometry and sacred buildings; pyramids, ziggurats, temples and religious complexes. In some way, therefore, geometry obtained its sacredness from the skies or the earth itself, as if these had been built from the harmonious organization of the solar system seen from Earth and given to it by one or more gods or angels.

Sacred geometry the became a secular and analytical geometry, which would become an encyclopedic exploration of all that geometry could do, rather than a set of techniques dreamt up by a band of roaming astronomers. In our schools, many lose interest in having to learn geometry in the abstract and so, in this, the megalithic had an advantage. They could learn geometry as and when they needed it, as their astronomy brought up new questions to solve, learning by finding methods to answer questions.

If one truly travels backwards in time, to discover what the megalithic astronomers had understood, I believe one has to decide which bits of your own skills have to be applied to solve the riddles of the megalithic mind. Each modern researcher must not assume the megalithic could calculate using numbers, use trigonometry, knew Pythagoras’ theorum, and so on. And yet, one can employ modern equipment to help investigate the megalithic. Google Earth, for example, can allow megalithic alignments to be studied, their azimuth, length and interrelation, whilst the context of sites can be seen that may provide clues not available in site plans, written descriptions and so on, which are sometimes difficult to obtain or require a personal expedition. The most basic tool for me has been the Casio scientific calculators, since the megalithic interaction with space (geometry) was blended with the interaction of numerical time counting, numbers which exist in the geocentric world of time.

Finally, one must realise the past is only in the present through our attention to it and, in the absence of much official interest in applied geometry, dimensionality and astronomical intent of the sites, it is left to non-specialists to become new specialists in the sense of recovering and conserving the true achievements of the megalithic, for our present age, while the monuments still exist as living mysteries. In this I advocate the path leading to what this website is about.

Astronomy 3: Understanding Time Cycles

above: a 21-petal object in the Heraklion Museum which could represent the 21 seven-day weeks in the 399 days of the Jupiter synod. [2004, Richard Heath]

One of the unfortunate aspects of adopting the number 360 for calibrating the Ecliptic in degrees is that the megalithic counted time in days and instead saw the ecliptic as divided by the 365¼ days. In transferring to the number 360, with all of its easy factors, 8 x 9 x 5, moderns cannot exploit a key advantage of 365¼ days.

If the lunar orbit takes 27.32166 days then each day the moon moves by 1/27.32166 of the ecliptic every day. For this reason, after 27.32166 days the orbit completes because the Moon’s “year” then equals one as the angular motion has been 27.32166/ 27.32166 = 1.

The same is true of the lunar nodes, which retrograde to the east along the ecliptic in 18.618 years. For this reason one can say, the lunar nodes move by 1/18.618 DAYS (in angle) every day and to travel one DAY in angle, the nodes take 18.618 DAYS per day (needing the new term “node day” equal the 18.618 days.*** A solar year takes 19.618 node days (since 365¼ equals 18.618 x 19.618) and an eclipse year takes 18.618 x 18.618 – 346.62 days

*** These are average figures since the moon comes under variable gravitational influences that are episodic.

A general rule emerges in which the larger, whole cycles, lead to reciprocals which can be numerically characterized by knowing the number of the days in the larger period.

For instance, Jupiter has a synodic excess over the solar year of 398.88 days and this means its angular motion is 1/ 398.88 DAYS per day while Saturn’s synod is 378.09 days and its angular motion is 1/ 378.09 DAYS per day. These synods are, by definition, differential to the Sun at 1/ 365.2422 DAYS per day.

Without seeing astronomy as calibrated to day and year cycles, one is robbed of much chance to appreciate the megalithic view of time and the time-factored buildings that came to be built in pursuit of quite advanced knowledge.

Looking from the relatively large cycles to the extremely small, daily angular changes of celestial bodies seen from Earth, reveals a further obscuration created, in this case, by the heliocentric view of the solar system, rather than the geocentric view which is obviously founded on days and years seen from the surface of the planet.

The largest cycle the megalithic could see using their techniques, reverses the direction from large-to-small to small-to-large since the precessional cycle (of the equinoctal nodes of the earth’s obliquity) is around 25,800 ± 100 years long. A star or constellation on the ecliptic appears to move east, like the lunar nodes, and using the angular measure of DAYS, it is possible to estimate that the equinoctal points move by a single DAY, in a given epoch, something like 71 years. The precessional cycle is therefore 71 years multiplied by the 365.2422 DAYS of the whole ecliptic.

The most important benefit of using DAY angles is that knowledge of a few celestial periods opens up a realm in which different scales of time can be derived from first principles. And added to that, the celestial periods appear related to one another so that so-called sacred numbers emerge such as the seven day week which divides into both the Saturn synod (54 weeks), Jupiter synod (57 weeks), the 364 day saturnian year (52 weeks) and others.

To understand the full scope of megalithic astronomy requires a geocentric calibration of the ecliptic as having 365¼ angular DAYS.