Those new to Ernest McClain and his The Myth of Invariance, should know this book was a seminal work for anyone in my generation, that opened up a Pythagorean vision; of how number operates in the domain of harmony. This world of harmony can be numerically defined in a quite extraordinary and specific way and we, as human beings, can receive it through our mind whilst also through the senses. This relates to the unusual fact that, whilst all notes can be doubled in frequency through the number two, with a perfect consonance, a new population of notes is then opened up, within an octave, of intervals that are also harmonious, through the use the two next prime numbers: three and five. Thus music, so effective upon the human heart, can build a world of meaning, sometimes referenced in myths as sacred numbers, written through understanding harmony as fundamentally generated through numeric transitions within music.
In 2008 I prepared a summary of Ernest McClain’s statements about Agni because, in the midst of the perfect symmetry of musical harmony lies something new, born to the world opposite its beginnings and endings. I originally made the pdf below for my friend Anthony Blake, part of our attempt to study the origin of creativity within the existing world. It appears that something important comes into being at the centre of this issue of octaval harmony, just as we ourselves come into existence in the middle of the universe, as conscious beings, conscious then of our incompletion.
It occured to me to include this in an email to Ernest and, all in, he said in reply “I can’t imagine anyone improving on your few pages” and “Put it out now on your own website stamped with my approval”. Please enjoy this transmission from the centre of the octave:
What Ernest McClain says about Agni in The Myth of Invariance:
The Light and Dark, as Value and Fact, could be viewed as reconciled by an evolved mind, within the biosphere. They could indeed be the cause of the arising of proto-minds, since existential situations in the Biosphere are of value for its beings whilst being factual. As Bennett points out, sex and death are innovations of the biospheric world, and we can now date their arrival during the Cambrian “explosion” (around 542 million years ago) when plants and animals (multicellular life forms) innovated sex to reproduce their organisms as a whole as well as regenerating their cells through cell division. Animals, unlike single-celled algae, are able to express action but must die to benefit from generational improvement by natural selection. Only by such means could the three brains of humans, motive, emotive and cognitive, be selected through their effectiveness in adaptation to living conditions within a variety of different biomes.
But there have been problems for humans in their maintaining a shared cultural harmony towards nature and the biosphere, due to the success of their cognitive brain capacity to solve environmental problems based upon facts. Technologies can arise whose consequences may conflict with social values that are somewhat weakly held to. Arguments can break out over values and the impact of technologies and those that wield them, but the factual benefits generally dominate other human views. The environmental argument is being lost whilst technology becomes an ever stronger threat to the biosphere as we know it. The modern world is simply the latest and greatest in which actions often clearly go against valuing the environment over the wealth it can create, and better-off populations have become used, inured and psychically hardened to human and biospheric tragedy.
The familiar types of religion were identified by John Bennett as worshipping God as Father, Mother, Son, and Spirit. Of these, it is the Spirit culture that best represents Nature and the biosphere, rather than the human need to have god “in the image and likeness” of the generative relationships; of father (authority), mother (nourisher), and male child (saviour). The Spirit culture is now identified with the East because “spiritism” was carefully removed from our world view by modern science, in order to “get at” the physical laws which such beliefs, in spirits behind phenomena, “hid” from being investigated and understood; as being factual and not involving spirits at all.
The norm for spiritism is to explain the biospheric world as due to four or sometimes five elements. The word “element”, then came to be used for our chemical elements, having inherited that word from the precursor of modern chemistry, alchemy. The aim of alchemy was the transformation of material properties and, alongside this, the transformation of human understanding in the form of the philosopher’s stone.
The displacement of four elements by (what would need to be called) the atomic elements, was a descent into the factual nature of what things were actually made of. But in the process of factual discovery the original purpose of the system of four Elements was lost sight of, namely; a workable system for understanding the world as being due to the interaction of but four types of characteristic properties within situations, that is as found within nature.
The Elements enabled the study of nature as a whole through the collation of diverse properties into states of materiality, on the basis of which concrete understandings were possible of interactions within the environment and indeed, within our own bodily and even psychic nature. Without seeing the world as being made up of these Elements, the whole world view, shared by Classical and ancient near eastern cultures, rendered that view ineffective. The chemical elements, whilst factually true, had displaced a form of understanding that was not based purely upon facts.
A similar system to the four Elements can be seen running in parallel within ancient modes of thought, in which three terms create triadic relationships; the gunas of post Vedic India and the trigrams of the Chinese I Ching.
The virtue of a small number of Elements or terms, corresponds with the underlying belief that the world should be knowable by human beings, which is intelligible to us, as if ordained by whatever gave rise to the biosphere or even the universe. Since humanity have evolved in the biosphere perhaps it is quite factually possible for the world we live in to be knowable in a direct and simple way. Associated with the human need for simplicity in order to understand, and the corresponding intelligibility within Nature, is the question of what role the human being has within the biosphere.
The evolution of the present-day human is at least in part some kind of natural selection and if such selection is purely due to successful survival then, no purpose can be attributed to the arising of the human being. The idea that the biosphere has evolved the human would be absurd within a scientific framework and yet, the “climbing of mount impossible” as Richard Dawkins characterised the success of natural selection begs the question of what the impossible is. Achieving the Impossible is considered Miraculous and Gurdjieff says, in a book called In Search of the Miraculous, that higher levels of super-consciousness exist within human beings, which are fully functional but also hard to access. He called these the higher emotional and higher intellectual centres. It is only this distributed but sub-conscious seat of intelligence within the human population which could form part of an intelligent biosphere which could be purpositive.
The problem with natural selection is that it deals only with the effect of facts upon biological selection; the facts either kill you and you can’t breed or the facts are survivable and you do. However creatures also develop faculties and these are as much to do with factually intangible values, such as skills, experience, communication, persistence, and whilst all these are often now built in to natural selection, they participate in the domain of Value rather than Fact. Values are often held within patterns which, although these can often be recorded, what they mean have to be received by some kind of mind that is not oblivious to them. Such a mind, in other words, has to be sensitive and it is this sensitivity coupled to an appropriate apparatus which we call a mind which is distinguished by recognising values in environmental situations.
This sensitivity is required to perceive and manage the values which can be found in the biosphere including cultural situations. This led Chinese spiritism to propose that “The Supreme Will can only set in motion, It cannot control the things It has made”. Things set in motion, not by us but within Nature, express both facts and values, though the values require a mind for their perception. These minds can imagine states of the world, scenarios which don’t actually exist and such visions can themselves be creative. But minds can also develop concrete understandings which have emerged not from imagining an alternative to what exists but rather from work embracing both knowable facts and perceived values within the present moment, so as to generate new structures of will.
This relationship can be seen in the most powerful symbol of Chinese spiritism, The Tao.
Overlaid are the connectives of a Tetrad, a diagram used with Bennett’s systematics but probably historically originated by Aristotle. It deals with an above and a below which, as a dyad, are unable to interact but do provide the motivation behind a horizontal dyad which provides an operational means to actualisation. Here the motivation is to study an Activity (the systemic attribute Bennett gave it in his systematics) which evidently exists within human beings; to work with the values we perceive in knowable and factual situations.
As we proposed above, we can work with facts in new creative ways by imagining situations which do not yet exist, but might be possible to achieve. This can then have a Cybernetic effect in which what is imagined can become instrumental in achieving something through our human agency within the world.
Learning to achieve something new in the world requires the formation of a concrete understandings which are, in effect, a new structure of our will. Rooted in existence, knowable facts can feed creative imagination which, having perceived a new value, can seek a suitable understanding to make that value a reality in the factual world.
The above led me, by adapting some of Arthur M. Young’s thinking [in his Geometries of Meaning], to recognising the need for something which lies behind such a power for values within human experience. Within his own four fold systems, he suggests that systems cannot be creatively controlled without recognising their sense of purpose. He traces the causal sequence in which pigs accidentally get burnt and are discovered cooked. The idea of cooking reverses this received ordering by imagining the cooking of a pig by lighting a fire so as to eat the cooked pig, as previously discovered after a natural fire. Causality is reversed by grasping what is required as a whole situation with the purpose (or Will) to cook a pig to eat.
It is in the recognition of wholeness that such structures of will are born, in which the Unity of the whole (system plus environment) can act. Wholeness is grasped by recognising a possible state of affairs and the means of achieving it, all coalesced into a system of balanced terms by intelligence. This can be identified with the directing term of a Tetrad which then stands between Unity and Diversity, the latter being the result of the former in traditional Creational stories. Could it be that Unity is really more basic than value as being its source and Diversity more basic than Fact as being what facts manifest?
The above diagram can then be re-posed as:
The verb INVENT is a term which is directing whilst the instrumental term is ADAPT since the building of fires belongs to the skill development in which Life in general has adapted to the environment. Adaptation is cybernetic in the sense of evolving causal loops to cope with environmental needs and necessities, which Invention breaks out of existing causal loops to form a new act of will, manifesting the intelligence of the Whole (unity) and creating a future structure of will. ADAPT and INVENT are coloured red (“the light [of the sun] seen through darkness”) and blue (“the darkness [of distant hills] seen through [scattered] light”) to express Goethe’s phenomenology, in which a complex or diverse situation is collapsed by Life to invent new ways of containing and hence simplifying the World, as a harmonious Unity of Will.
After the ice receded, late Stone Age people developed the farming crucial to the development of cities in the Ancient Near East (ANE). On the Atlantic coast of Europe, they also developed a now-unfamiliar science involving horizon astronomy. Megalithic monuments were the tools they used for this, some still seen in the coastal regions of present day Spain, France, Britain and Ireland. Megalithic astronomy was an exact science and this conflicts with our main myth about our science: that ours is the only true science, founded through many historical prerequisites such as arithmetic and writing in the ancient near east (3000- 1200 BC) and theory-based reasoning in Classical Greece (circa 400-250 BC), to name but two. Unbeknownst to us, the first “historical period” in the near east was seeded by the exact sciences of the megalithic, such as the accurate measurement of counted lengths of time, developed by the prehistoric astronomers. With the megalithic methods came knowledge and discoveries, and one discovery was of the harmonic ratios between the planets and the Moon.
The idea that the planets were gods had been born before the ancient world, through the data of megalithic astronomy and this megalithic idea was the basis for the religious ideas of the East. Megalithic astronomy and Near Eastern religious and harmonic ideas have both been written out of our history of civilization, leaving us with enigmatic monuments and ill-defined religious mysteries. How this slighting of our real history happened is perhaps less important than our discovering again the purpose of the megalithic monuments and of those religious ideas that sprang from the discovery that the planets were harmonically related to life on Earth.
Is human history lacking something fundamental?
The Harmonic Origins of the World first explores this alternative late stone age, the megalithic, as more culturally significant than the advent of Neolithic farming. But ironically, the megalithic culture has been eclipsed by the history-building developments of the middle-eastern civilisations, all because intellectual histories could only start when written records began within the civilizations. Writing did not make people literate and they still relied on an oral tradition of story-telling which had descended from the stone age. But writing did record the oral stories which became our texts.
Subsequent civilisations changed the civilized soul, through contact with the material cultures necessary to support urbanisation: written records, accountancy, religious ideas, reason and most recently our own science and technology. To get closer to the meaning of the megalithic enterprise, one must recognise that its primary cultural norm was astronomical. Numbers were sublimated as counted lengths, these representing the duration of celestial cycles where days were counted using small standardised units such as a digit or inch. This counting of time, to form a length where numbers were then implicit, enabled the geometry of the right triangle to also sublimate the multiplicative and trigonometrical functions used, in our mathematics, to calculate. Today’s methods for studying astronomy are therefore completely different to those of the megalithic: we don’t look to the horizon, count lengths or use geometry to compare. Therefore 20th century science has vastly underestimated the scope, sophistication and significance of megalithic astronomical knowledge.
Why was Religion astronomical?
The religious thoughts that subsequently emerged in the ANE were mainly based upon the celestial heavens; where the planets, sun and moon were gods responsible for the creation of the world. Our word religion expresses the notion of a human effort to reconnect with a cosmic world above our heads. Ancient religion had a sacred basis that was kept secret from the ordinary man and this established the division between the secular and the sacred which still exists today. The most direct way of explaining why ancient religions sought to connect with gods, literally in heaven, is to see in it the product of a prior age in which the heavenly world was intensively studied so as to understand the behaviour of the celestial bodies within a heavenly worldof time, as where something divine is happening. This work must have predated the earliest historical civilisations. No written record of megalithic astronomy has ever been found so that only the monuments can speak of it, if we understand their astronomical language of number and proportion.
By 3000 BC, the Sumerians had inherited fully developed astronomically-based religious ideas in their oral traditions (such as Gilgamesh, then fortunately written down on cuneiform tablets.) Thus, whilst the megalithic was reaching a zenith in Europe, the great historical civilisations recorded beliefs that could only have evolved from their concrete astronomical knowledge of the heavens, an activity brought uniquely to a high level of sophistication by the builders of the megaliths. But why were astronomical truths used as a basis for religious thought? To understand this requires we re-interpret the megalithic record, a record largely concerned with discovering the time-patterns of the sun and moon.
Astronomical Ratios are the Matrix of Creation
The pattern of time formed by planets can be found within the stories and symbols of the historic period, but the techniques for finding this pattern only existed in the megalithic period as it must have been based upon measuring ratios between time periods. Planetary time ratios naturally lead to a pantheistic insight; that the planets are gods, instrumental in the creation and maintenance of the world.
The megalithic established the ratio (between counted lengths) of the lunar to solar years, as the basis of their astronomy, and this approach was then crucial to understanding the musical pattern of time formed by the planets to the moon (as per figure 3).
The moon was formed after the collision of a proto-earth with a smaller Mars-like planet, as the inner solar system was coalescing its solid matter into the present inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Billions of years later, the moon achieved an orbital distance from the earth that made the lunar year (of twelve lunar months) musically resonant with the three outer planets. The lunar year formed a tone (9/8) to the synod of Jupiter, a diatonic semitone (16/15) to the synod of Saturn and a chromatic semitone (25/24) to the synod of Uranus.
For the ratios of these outer planets to relate to the lunar year requires the ratios of their sidereal periods to already havethe possibilityof achieving this musical resonance, when viewed from Earth’s orbital year. Figure 2 shows the situation within which the synods of the outer planets are themselves expressing lesser-known musical intervals between each other. Saturn is the common factor of 128 units of time in length to Jupiter’s 135 units and to Uranus’s 125 units. It is these numbers in ratio that enable the lunar year to achieve a duration of 120 units and, since the lunar year is made up of 12 lunar months, these units of time are one tenth of a lunar month long or 2.953 days.
Forming the Cosmic Octave
The optical discovery of Uranus in ancient times is dubious, but we can assume that the synods of Jupiter and Saturn became known to a megalithic astronomy which, as already stated, specialised in measuring time periods and in comparing these to other time periods, using trigonometrical triangles.
Figure 3 shows how megalithic use of triangular comparison would have revealed the common factor, of 1/10th of a lunar orbit, between the outer planets, namely the Jupiter synod is 13.5 lunar months, that of Saturn is 12.8 lunar months (and that of Uranus is 12.5 lunar months.)
The Gods of the Ancient World
This was the principle discovery on which ancient speculation, that the planets were gods, was based. These same lords of time were celebrated in the New World, after the Bronze Age collapse of 1200 BC in the Old World, firstly with the Olmec and subsequently the Maya and Aztec religions of Mesoamerica. Passed on from the Ancient Near East, Olmec religious ideas contained elements soon suppressed in the Old World. Numerical tuning theory was closer to its astronomical origins before 1200 BC so that, the fantastic information placed into mythic stories could still be read with regard to the harmonic numbers referred to in stories. These numbers could be abnormally long ages or reigns, the numbers of things, the number of syllables or stanzas, and so on. Ancient myths hold many astronomical and harmonic allusions which have long puzzled scholars unable to find the missing link in the megalithic.
A couple of seminal books on this subject emerged simultaneously with similarly challenging proposals. In Hamlet’s Mill (1969) the Precession of the Equinoxes (and of the earth’s Poles) was shown to be a common theme within myths and; in The Myth of Invariance (1976), Plato’s tuning theory was shown to be “the tip of an iceberg” of ancient harmonic allegory: both books implied there had been a near world-wide oral tradition that had incorporated such matters in their epic works.
For example, the Bible has a flood hero called Noah, reused from those of Marduk in Babylon and Indra in the Rig Veda. Precession was considered the creator of world ages, that is, of History itself; and the great numbers of India expressed time as a harmonic ceiling for an octave, such as 8,640,000,000 – a number which turns up in many traditions, for example the Edda’s final battle of the gods, and the design of Angkor Wat. The Bible significantly starts with a smaller number, the first man is called Adam, whose name in letter-number equivalence is 1 + 4 + 40 = 45 when added whilst in place notation he is 1,440, which is 32 x 45. This takes us back to the Moon.
Music from the Moon
If one wants to generate a harmonic ceiling for the lunar year and outer planets, whose numbers are 120, 128 and 135, Adam as 45 must be doubled twice to 180, the age at which Isaac, son of patriarch Abraham, dies. This implies that the lunar year lies within a harmonic system of 18 lunar months, which is exactly the time period of the Olmec and Maya Supplemental Glyphs, sometimes added to their Long Count marking upon stela (engraved standing stones) as if these cultures had derived from the megalithic. The Olmec appear to carry forth parts of the intellectual life of megalithic times otherwise lost to the historic record. The Bible writers were evidently privy to this harmonic tradition which seems to have travelled alongside an oral tradition, lost though cryptically recorded by the genuine literacy of Plato’s age, in texts and secret Pythagorean groups.
If one factorises the numbers 120, 128 and 135, one can place them according to the presence of prime numbers 2, 3 and 5, since it is these primes which form the musical intervals between tones:
Powers of 2
× powers of 3
× powers of 5
One can see that the lunar year and Jupiter synod both have the factor 5 whilst they differ in two ways; by 9 (3 x 3) and by 8, hence the interval 9/8 between them. Saturn differs in three ways from the lunar year; by 16 (128/8), and by both 3 and 5, hence the interval 16/15 between them.
The writers of the Bible raised Isaac up from 180 through reproductive doubling to 360 (x 2), then 720 (x 4) to reach the fullest extent of Adam’s name, namely 1440 (x 8), meaning we must multiply these planetary numbers by 8 to become 960, 1024 and 1080 – numbers which have rich meaning in ancient number symbolism. They can be viewed on a mountain made of increasing powers of 2, 3 and 5 under the 1440 limit (figure 4) and this mountain uses units one 80th instead of one 10th of a lunar month.
One 80th of the lunar month of 29.53 days is 0.369 days, which times 1000 is the synod of Uranus (starts 4th row), the air god Enlil, who launched floods to cleanse the earth of human wickedness. The Bible replaced him with YHWH and the seven planetary gods were removed from the week, numbering weekdays rather than deifying them as of the god, as per; “Thou shalt have no other gods before me”. And yet, the harmonic doctrine still lay behind the outer biblical narrative, secretly informing it.
This situation is repeated in many ancient texts and in many different ways. The widespread insertion of harmonic numbers within literary texts gives three rows of darker notes around D a special capacity to form musical scales. In this case the gematria limit for Adam of 1440, gives him the ability to play five modal scales, some of the notes having these planetary numbers.
This type of work was originally deduced from some of Plato’s dialogues, seen as a codification of the ancient methods by Ernest G McClain, who wrote The Myth of Invariance to illustrate its widespread use in the ancient world. I have continued in this rich vein whilst connecting McClain’s work with my own work: on megalithic astronomy and discovery (in 2000) of the musical intervals between the lunar year and the outer planets.
Bringing it all together
TheHarmonic Origins of the World is the latest exploration of this domain, revealing some famous figures in ancient myth, through visualising their “holy” mountains whilst introducing how practical musical scales work on these mountains. The significance of McClain’s work is deepened through the restoration of an important missing history which can explain why our oldest texts, often religious, are peppered with harmonic numbers. And part of that missing history is that harmony between the lunar year and outer planets has arisen relatively recently, alongside the modern humans of the last 200,000 years.
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 Synodic periods are the time taken for the Earth to again stand between that outer planet and the Sun, longer than a year because the planets are slowly moving during the solar year. These synods therefore only apply to those living on the surface of the Earth. The synods are: lunar month 29.53059 days; lunar year 354.367 days; Jupiter synod 398.88 days; Saturn synod 378.09 days; Uranus synod 369.66 days
The harmony of the spheres can only be found in our world of time, where it is a strong and compelling phenomenon. Such a harmony was no prescientific fantasy. Pythagoras, who coined the term, probably did so based on the geocentric time world, a view lost to history apart from cryptic references that can no longer be interpreted.
In our age of system science, musical harmony is not thought relevant to the design of dynamic systems such as the planets, yet they appear adapted to just intonation seen from the exclusive perspective of our planet. Why should our planet have a harmonious view of time, and what difference does time’s harmoniousness make to life on Earth? Is there some other purpose to this harmony or none at all? To answer such questions one has to recognize just intonation as being a holistic system that demands human insight into the nature of whole phenomena (a so-called gestalt). Such gestalts flow from the need to see higher-level relationships rather than the raw complexity of their parts. All higher structures of meaning subsume lower levels of meaning. For example, microclimates are a structuring of meaning higher than trees, water, weather, and topography, usefully integrating these parts within a newly perceived whole. Such insights reveal a higher idea that indicates new potentials within a system. The new level of conceptual order has not changed in the phenomenon but how we relate to it. This profound faculty is the basis of what we call understanding rather than knowing, and it enlarges our “world.” The world is already structured, and a sensory insight re-creates that structure as a simplifying aspect, already present, to expand the intelligibility of the sensory world and with it, our present moment. Insight and the world’s creation were considered similar acts within ancient cosmologies, in that an insight about the world resembles the structure of the world as it would be conceived by any god in the act of creating it. Such a vision involves a special effort but provides a creative view of the world, in which simplicity and relatedness replace functional complexity with a new appreciation of the sensory world. The celestial behavior in Earth’s skies is a prime example of such an action: the rotation of Earth, its orbit around the sun, the moon’s orbit, and its illumination by the sun complicate the observed orbital periods of the other planets and yet, that added complexity has produced harmonic simplicity between synodic periods!
Chapter 1 showed how Late Stone Age astronomers used geometrical counts of synodic periods to discover this harmony of the spheres, which modern astronomers have not seen because scientific calculation methods deal instead with planetary dynamics modeled by equations. Simplicity has somehow adapted our solar system without breaking physical laws. At the level of gravitational dynamics, many complexities were required to achieve just intonation seen only from Earth, especially the lengthening of the lunar month as an intermediary to the planetary synods seen from Earth. Any demiurgic preference for harmony (seen from Earth) resembles the human gestalt that revealed the harmony of the spheres to human sensory intelligence in the Late Stone Age, and it must be noted, humanity has become demiurgic since the Stone Age, creating man-made worlds.
Demiurgic intelligences are probably part of each star system and, if our star has a demiurgic intelligence, this action seems to have used the moon to establish a justly intoned time world for the third planet. It adapted the unchanging orbital pitches of an n-body planetary system to present harmonic synodic systems that planetary orbital periods alone could never express. Our geocentric system is harmonically founded between 1, the zeroth power of 2 (the Saturn synod) and the fifth power of 60 (YHWH, as 365-day year), which is the smallest numerical resolution to contain just intonation of both inner and outer planets, as in the implied holy mountains of our ancient texts.
Harmonic Origins of the World Contents (272 pages, 100 b&w illustrations) Preface Introduction: The Significance of Planetary Harmony (5) PART 1: RECOVERING LOST KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD SOUL 1 Climbing the Harmonic Mountain (20) 2 Heroic Gods of the Tritone (19) 3 YHWH Rejects the Gods (15) 4 Plato’s Dilemma (22) PART 2: A COSMICALLY CREATIVE HARMONY 5 The Quest for Apollo’s Lyre (25) 6 Life on the Mountain (23) PART 3 THE WAR IN HEAVEN 7 Gilgamesh Kills the Stone Men (16) 8 Quetzalcoatl’s Brave New World (31) 9 YHWH’s Matrix of Creation (19) 10 The Abrahamic Incarnation (15) Postscript: Intelligent Star Systems APPENDIX 1: Astronomical Periods and Their Matrix Equivalents APPENDIX 2: Ancient Use of Tone Circles (11) Notes Bibliography Index
“Heath has done a superb job of collating his own work on the subject of megaliths with the objective views of many other researchers in the field. I therefore do not merely recommend reading this book but can state unequivocally it is a must read.” –John Neal, British metrologist and researcher and author of Measuring the Megaliths and The Structure of Metrology
“In Sacred Number and the Lords of Time we have an important explanation of how megalithic science was developed. This book is a long-overdue wakeup call to a modern culture that has abandoned this fully developed and astonishingly rich prehistoric model of the physical world. The truth is now out.” –Robin Heath, coauthor of The Lost Science of Measuring the Earth and author of Sun, Moon and Earth