Tragic Loss of the Geocentric Arts and Sciences

This was an article for New Dawn.

The geocentric planetary model on the left was displaced by a visually simple heliocentric model, of how the solar system would look from a distance rather than from the Earth.

About 400 years ago, the move to the Heliocentric Model of the “solar system” swept away the worldview upon which human spirituality had been based for at least 5000 years. We can say that all spiritual literature was based upon the previous cosmological norms of the Geocentric Model. It is generally not realized that the Koran, New Testament, Buddhist, Tibetan, Hindu, Pythagorean, Platonic, yogic, shamanistic, and many other primary and secondary texts including Shakespeare, alluded to the details of a geocentric cosmology: a foundational framework often debunked as inaccurate yet, the geocentric was a valid ordering of the planetary cosmos. The religious values within the model were overtaken by the new scientific norm, which was inherently materialistic in its study of physical laws and processes, these universal throughout an ever-expanding vision of the universe, through observations and experiments in physics and chemistry deducing new types of knowledge. And mankind would soon use these new laws and discoveries to exploit the universe itself.

This transition from geocentrism to heliocentrism came against a backdrop of Islamic and Christian suppression of scientific discoveries, which represented a growing desire since Classical times for human reason to escape the shackles of the oral and then bookish traditions, which broadcast their own messages as if final, to be obeyed on pain of death or at least social exclusion. In this war between religious theocracies and an emerging modern science no quarter was given to the geocentric model, even though all previous traditional thought the world over relied on it. A cleric called Copernicus suggested that everything must revolve around the Sun and not the Earth. the geocentric past was soon ditched, like the baby with the bathwater and the whole of spiritual literature lost much of its foundational imagery. Science had displaced the ancient mythologies due to its own struggle to understand the physical world. The “natural philosophers” eliminated any mysterious causes for why things happened by discovering physical causes for all phenomena, these natural and real through physical laws without any gods or spirits being involved.

Pride before a Fall

Modern science might well have reminded monotheistic clerics of Adam, the Bible’s first man eating from the forbidden fruit, plucked by Eve from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, which grew at the centre of a geocentric Eden. Like Adam, the scientists would then have the “knowledge of good and evil” and become themselves “as gods”, and this has become true for technology. The improving standards of living for many people in the West is taken to mean the clerics were wrong to suppress science, yet humanity has fulfilled the biblical prophecy concerning Adam: the scientists, industrialists and financiers have exactly become like gods, to “know good and evil”. The spiritual locale was further abstracted from being in the heavens, by removing its foundational geocentric model; simultaneously giving science an over-realised view of a purely physical earth and cosmos.

Science gave humanity powers over the natural world, leading to explosion in the world population based upon an industrial revolution that exploited the planet, its habitats and resources, on an ever-growing rate and scale. In the Iron Age, such a tyranny could only operate on a regional scale, but science-led societies now developed a global reach and an infinite franchise, with business models whose scope was the whole globe, to advertise and consume resources as products and services. In this sense then, the clerics were right: for though the clerics might have themselves behaved like repressive iron age tyrants towards science, they lacked the technologies that could ruin the Biosphere. Science now recognises the exploitation of the Earth, its biosphere, and its people to be a major problem, forecast to grow worse before better, and already more than bad enough. But economic growth is inherently unsustainable and so, what kind of a society will it be that does not depend upon growth to fix its debts? A geocentric society?

The ancient world could and did warn what sort of an archetypal trajectory the scientists would initiate for, like Icarus, the technologists would take humanity too close to the Sun. The wax fixing the wings of wide-bodied multinationals would melt and they would suffer the fate also of Phaethon, son of Helios the Sun, whose chariot he recklessly drove for a day. Losing control, Phaethan caused havoc in the skies and on the earth, his erratic pathway being visible as the deviation of the galaxy from the sun’s path. The Earth goddess Gaia made urgent appeal to Jupiter, who hurled his thunderbolt upon the precocious lad who fell into the eternal river Eridanus.

The Origins of Geocentrism

About twenty years ago, I found simple numbers between planetary periods seen from Earth. This caused me to drop some modern assumptions about which present the ancient view of the cosmos as inferior. For example, modern history is a linear view of the past with a fixed beginning in the earliest middle eastern cities such as Sumer and Babylon (3000 to 2000 BCE). Cities make a happy starting point since we live in cities ourselves and writing arose with the early cities, providing historical records.

In 2002, Matrix of Creation published a different, cyclic view of time, where the complexity of the modern sun-centred system became simple. Looked at without modern bias and, using a scientific calculator, a geocentric astronomy of average periods identified two unexpected baselines: the practical year of 365 days (the Earth) and the lunar year of 354.375 days (the Moon). It was this geocentric simplicity that had made astronomy possible for the late Stone Age (or “neolithic”). On the western seaboard of Europe, the megalith astronomers developed the first geocentric worldview which, I believe, was then inherited by the civilizations of the ancient near eastern cities.

Several astronomical innovations were required to carry out this form of horizon astronomy. For example, without modern numeracy they had to store day counts as lengths, one inch to the day[1]. The primary innovations were,

  1. Long sightlines were established to key celestial events on the horizon, such as the sun or moon, rising or setting.
  2. The number of days were counted between horizon events, to quantify each periodicity as a measured length between points or as a rope.
  3. Different celestial periods could then be compared employing simple geometries like the triangle, circle and square, revealing the ratios between celestial periods.[2]

Musical Ratios and the Giant Planets

The lunar year of 354 ⅝ days manifests the principle of musical harmony between itself and the outer planets. At 398.88 days, the synod of Jupiter is 9/8 of the lunar year, Saturn (at 378.09 days) is 16/15 of the lunar year, while Uranus (at 369.66 days) is 25/24 of the lunar year. In the pure-tone music of the ancient world, these are the three fundamental intervals called the Pythagorean whole tone, the Just semitone, and the chromatic semitone: intervals essential to the formation of musical scales.

In 2018, Harmonic Origins of the World was able to locate these outer planetary ratios within an ancient style of harmonic matrix, implied by some of Plato’s least understood dialogues. Centuries before, Pythagoras would have learnt of such harmonic matrices, from the ancient mystery centres of his day. Harmonic matrices and tables of numbers appear to have been used by initiates of the Ancient Near East[3] to give the stories of ancient texts such as the Bible a deeper subtext beneath. Set within eternity, stories could be entertaining and uplifting while those initiated in the mysteries, could find knowledge relating to harmonic tuning and the planetary world: Tuning theory and its special numbers had come to inhabit ancient texts because the outer planets, surrounding Earth expressed the three most fundamental musical ratios, the tones and semitones found within octave scales.

Geocentric knowledge can be found conserved within ancient narratives because, before writing arose, there was an oral tradition which had to be remembered until eventually written down. The ancient mysteries arose to connect the human world of Existence to the cosmic world of Eternity, visible from the Earth. Myths of gods, heros and mortals were but a natural reflection of the harmonic worlds of the heavens into the cultural life of the people, like the moon reflected in a lake.

Sacred Geometry: Language of the Angels illustrates how new types of sacred building and space emerged, still carrying the geocentric model, its numbers and measures into Classical Greece, Rome, Byzantium and elsewhere, including India, China and the Americas. For example, the Parthenon design (figure 1) incorporates the harmony of the outer planets with the lunar year and Athena (the patriarchal moon goddess) had the same root of 45 as Adam did in the Bible’s creation story written about three centuries before.

Figure 1. The Parthenon as a musical instrument model of the Moon (960) and the outer planets (Jupiter is 1080 and Saturn is 1024.) [figure 5.16 of Sacred Geometry: Language of the Angels where many further examples are to be found.]

Fibonacci Ratios and the Terrestrial Planets

The inner planets exploit the special properties of Fibonacci numbers as approximations to the Golden Mean. The practical year of 365 days can be divided into 5 parts of 73 days, and the synodic period of Venus is then 8 parts of 73 days or 584 days. The two numbers 5 and 8 are part of the Fibonacci series {0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 etc. } in which the next number is the sum of the two previous numbers. 8/5 is 1.6 in our notation and 73 days x 1.6 equals 116.8 days (584/5 days)[4]. This reveals the inner solar system to be a realm in which, proximity to the Sun leads to numerical relationships informed by the Fibonacci numbers – when seen from the Earth.

The synod of Mars (Ares), the outer terrestrial planet, also relates to the practical year as two semitones of 16/15, a harmonic ratio perhaps because of his proximity to the gas giant Jupiter (Zeus), who is his mythological father.

Figure 2 (left) The geocentric pentacle of 5 successive Venus synods in 8 years of 365 days, within the Zodiac and (right) the ubiquity of the golden mean within the geometry of the pentacle. Such geometrical ratios would become emblematic and sacred to the sky.

The golden mean (1.618034…) is a unique but natural short-circuit within the fractional number field: its reciprocal (equal to 0.618) is equivalent to subtraction by one while its square (equal to 2.618) is equivalent to addition by one. The Fibonacci numbers, in successively approximating the golden mean, enable planetary orbits near the Sun to express the golden mean. For example, the Venus synod is 8/5 (1.6) practical years whilst its orbital period is 8/13 (0.625) practical years, because its orbit divides the practical year as the number 1. The synod of Venus is therefore a function of that orbital period and the practical year in a practical application of discrete mathematics. This sort of resonance is found in moons close to massive planets like Jupiter and so, the inner planets are like moons of the Sun, seen from Earth – exactly as Tacho Brahe’s geoheliocentric model eventually did, after Copernicus just before gravitation was discovered.

Figure 3 The Geocentric Model as (left) a Staff and
(right) Nine Concentric Rings or “spheres”

The Geocentric Inheritance of Greece

The medieval geocentric model had its origins in ancient Greece, due to Pythagoras. This was discarded by 1600, when Copernicus showed that many of the difficulties in understanding the form of the planetary orbits were due to the placing of the Earth and Moon at the centre or bottom, and the Sun as third planet out (figure 3). If the Sun, Mercury and Venus are swapped with Earth and Moon, the heliocentric system results – ordered according to its relative gravitational masses and orbital radii.

Figure 4 The Geocentric order (left) can be expanded to show
the Harmonic and Fibonacci ordering principles (right)

When accompanied by the set of simple time periods shown in figure 4, the geocentric model may have functioned as a focal aide memoire accompanying explicit oral or written explanations. The synodic planetary periods to either the lunar year or the practical year would be easily learnt by counting time as days between celestial manifestations. This might be the reason the ancient near east did not repeat the astronomy of the megalithic monuments. Instead, temples symbolised time and space, using a canon of sacred numbers in the name of the god or god-king. Astrology became a special form of divination within which long counts could arrive at the general state of the cosmos, correctable using instrumental or naked-eye observations. All such matters were associated with the state, and its specialists, including astrologers and scribes and the geocentric planetary system was a talisman for the ancient mysteries, astronomical and harmonic.

Poetry as the Language of Geocentricity

The primordial light initiating the Bible’s old testament creation story became the Word (in Greek: “Logos”)[5], of the New Testament. The logos was a proposed structure of meaning which held the world together within the human mind, if you could receive it. The second part of the creation story is therefore to understand the original creative process as a human creative process. Language has given human perception of the world a largesse of worldviews in the making. The geocentric world view became a particularly large corpus, through the texts of the religious centres but also through a poetic tradition seeking to locate its voice within a remarkably specific, consistent, and well-mapped-out topography, with geocentrism and its astronomical numbers at its heart. If there has been any major spiritual vision within human history it was geocentric and never heliocentric, even though the Sun is prime suspect for being the creative origin of the solar system and its extra-special geocentric planet, Earth.

By my 6th book, Sacred Geometry: Language of the Angels, I realized that the numerical design within which our “living planet” sits is a secondary creation – created after the solar system. Yet the geocentric was discovered before the heliocentric creation of the solar system because the megalithic had observed the planets from the Earth. So, although the solar system was created first in time, this creation continued onwards to produce a more sophisticated planet than the rest, where the other planets had the supporting roles, which the geocentric tradition had mythically alluded to, in a stable topography of places and mythic narratives; of gods, heroes, demons, events, and humans actors, serving as the sacred texts of the ancient world. Later writers both adopted and innovated this tradition:

In its use of images and symbols as in its use of ideas, poetry seeks the typical and enduring. That is one reason why throughout the history of poetry the basis for organising the imagery of the physical world has been the natural cycle. Northrop Frye, 1960.

Using literary criticism, Northrop Frye saw past the habitual assumption that high poets were artfully but merely remarking upon the sensory life and its everyday recurrences. Instead, he realised that living cycles were often employed as “similarities to the already arisen”, as Gurdjieff put it[6], meaning that the planetary world was being expressed by proxy through the natural cycles within poetry. And Life does depend upon the eternal cycles within which it sits: The spin and obliquity of the Earth and the orbit of its large moon. These two bodies are profoundly connected numerically to the rest of the planets according to the vision of the geocentric model, involving both Fibonacci and harmonic cycles. Frye first became aware of link between cosmology and poetry when analysing the works of William Blake, the poet who appeared to “make up” his own original yet geocentric cosmology and language; causing Frye to state “poetry is the language of cosmology”. Long after the heliocentric had suspended any belief in the geocentric, its language and metaphors still formed a stable tradition amongst poets, through the influences of a classical education.

The geocentric topography is quite standardized among its world-wide variation in imagery, over thousands of years, all quite agreeable with that used by Dante in The Divine Comedy, summarised by Frye in his essay New Directions from Old[7] as follows.

…For poets, the physical world has usually been not only a cyclical world but a “middle earth,” situated between an upper and a lower world. These two worlds reflect in their form the heavens and hells of the religions contemporary with the poet, and are normally thought of as abodes of unchanging being, not as cyclical. The upper world is reached by some form of ascent and is a world of gods or happy souls. The most frequent images of ascent are the mountain, the tower, the winding staircase or ladder, or a tree of cosmological dimensions. The upper world is often symbolized by the heavenly bodies, of which the one nearest to us is the moon. The lower world, reached by descent through a cave or under water, is more oracular and sinister, and as a rule is or includes a place of torment and punishment. It follows that there would be two points of particular significance in poetic symbolism. One is the point, usually at the top of a mountain just below the moon, where the upper world and this one come into alignment, where we look up to the heavenly world and down on the turning cycle of nature.[8]

By the time of the medieval, the image of the geocentric world had sprouted a sublunary gap between the Earth and the Moon with a rudimentary physics of the four elements – which are the four states of matter: solid earth, liquid water, gaseous air and a transformative fire; ideas from the pre-Socratic philosophers. With this palette, the storyteller or poet could allude to an invariant world view based upon megalithic astronomy, but now held as a diagram, made familiar through ever-new expressions or as an oral then written text.

A Simplified Model of Prehistory

The simplest explanation for which there is good evidence finds Atlantis to have probably been an Egyptian myth about the megalith builders on the Atlantic seaboard of Europe, whose astronomical knowledge became enshrined in the ancient mysteries. These mysteries have been made doubly mysterious since the modern age replaced the world view upon which those mysteries were based by the Copernican heliocentric view. This new solar system was soon discovered to be held together, not by the divine world, but by invisible gravitational forces between the large planetary masses and an even more massive Sun, forces elucidated by Sir Isaac Newton. The primacy of heliocentrism caused modern humanity to further lose contact with the geocentric model of the world and its two serpents, of the inner and outer planets (figure 4), a literary tradition that had lasted since at least 3000 BC.

If one but swapped the sun and moon-earth system, the geocentric planetary order became the heliocentric planetary order. The Copernican revolution seemed to be a minor tweak of a less useful model but tragically, the geocentric references to an original form of astronomy, based upon numerical time and forged by the megalithic, were lost and invisible to heliocentric astronomy. Science came to know nothing of the geocentric order surrounding the Earth and blind to the significance of the mythic worlds that animated the geocentric model.

You can find many additional articles at

[1] It is remarkable that the inch was one of the first units of length used by the megalithic in Carnac to count days.

[2] These matters are fully explained, most in Sacred Geometry: Language of the Angels.

[3] According to the late Ernest G. McClain (, American musicologist and writer, in the 1970s, of The Pythagorean Plato and The Myth of Invariance.

[4] one fifth of the Venus synod is therefore close to the synod of Mercury (115.88 days).

[5] John X:Y

[6] “… the [whole] presence of every kind of three-brained being … is an exact similitude of everything in the Universe.” Beelzebub’s Tales to his Grandson. G.I.Gurdjieff. 345. Similar to the Pythagorean tradition of the human being a microcosm of the macrocosm.

[7] found in Myth and Mythmaking ed: H.A. Murray, Wesleyan University Press.115-131. 1959.

[8] ibid. 123.

Origins of the Olmec/Maya Number Sciences

ABOVE: Stela C from Tres Zapotes roughly rebuilt by Ludovic Celle and based on a drawing by Miguel Covarrubias.


The policy of archaeology regarding the Maya and their root progenitor the Olmec (1500 BCE onwards) is that its cultural innovations were made within Mexico alongside an agrarian revolution of the three sisters, namely squash, maize (“corn”), and climbing beans. This relationship of agriculture to civilizing skills then reads like the Neolithic revolution in Mesopotamia after 4000 BCE, where irrigation made the fertile loam able to absorb agricultural innovations from the northern golden triangle leading to writing, trade, city states, religion, arithmetic and so on. However, the idea that the ancient near east or India could have been an influence through ocean conveyors, of currents and trade winds, has never been accepted when proposed. Yet there are good reasons to think this since the astronomy and monumentalism of the pre-Columbian Mexican civilizations has precedents in the ancient near east and other locations.

The timing of the Olmec and the strangeness of immediately building sacred cities with an almost captive population of around 10,000 people, such as La Venta and San Lorenzo, with strong Jaguar imagery and practices, implies a cultic basis was present from the beginning. And it is now looking likely that the ancient near east was similarly prefigured, not just by agriculture but also by know how involving numbers for the building of sacred buildings with astronomical aspects – a tradition that goes back at least to the megalithic of the Atlantic seaboard of Europe.

Since Columbus, the native populations of North and South America have been largely displaced or marginalized. It may be for this reason that the notion that people from an advanced population had initiated the Olmec civilization requires a high, possibly impossible, level of proof. This Isolationism***, perhaps to avoid “adding insult to injury”, is against the Olmec having derived from the Old World, where the historical records are not that much better. The Olmec origin date is around the time of the quite sudden collapse of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean around 1200 BCE. And the Olmec, Maya and Aztec appear to have had a definite myth concerning someone called Quetzelcoatl bringing civilizing skills to found their culture, though their culture was also seen as arising from a group of seven underground caves.

***The opposite of Diffusionism: Diffusionism is an anthropological school of thought, was an attempt to understand the distribution of culture in terms of the origin of culture traits and their spread from one society to another. Versions of diffusionist thought included the conviction that all cultures originated from one culture center (heliocentric diffusion); the more reasonable view that cultures originated from a limited number of culture centers (culture circles); and finally the notion that each society is influenced by others but that the process of diffusion is both [subject to chance] and arbitrary . read more

Long Counts and The LUNAR Calendar

Having sketched this background, this article will explore a strange coincidence between the calendrical origins of the Megalithic in Brittany, of a 36 lunar month, 3 lunar year calendar, and the 18 month calendar found in the some of the later Olmec Great Counts, called after the Supplementary Glyphs appended to record the local time in an 18 lunar month calendar. The correlation between long counts and the supplementary data has been invaluable since the long counts can be ambiguous between one or more possible dates but we can predict the sun and moon that far back can compare the glyphs with the alternative dates. Counts have also been found that were eclipses of the sun or moon, resolving a given long count date. It is therefoe interesting to compare the two calendars using the geometrical fact that 36 lunar months is both 2 x 18, 4 x 9 and 3 x 12 since 36 is 4 x 3 x3.

The implication is that the megalithic calendar over three years, which was based upon noticing that three solar years was the diagonal of a four square triangle whose side length is three lunar years, appears to have resulted in an Olmec/Maya calendar in which each square is 9 lunar months. As was noted in previous books (2004, 2016, 2018), the range 9 to 18 years contains a single lunar month {12}, the Jupiter synod {13.5}, the Saturn synod {12.8} and the Uranus synod {12.5}. This octave range between 9 and 2 x 9 = 18 was therefore possible to manifest as a Mexican city design (Teotihuacan) and as the Parthenon of Athens. A number of other examples can be found as one of the proposed major models used from the megalithic onwards, as discussed in Sacred Number: Language of the Angels (2021).

Parthenon as a New Model of the Meridian

This was published as The Geodetic And Musicological Significance Of The Shorter Side Length Of The Parthenon As Hekatompedon Or ‘Hundred-Footer’ in Music and Deep Memory: Speculations in ancient mathematics, tuning, and tradition, in memoriam Ernest G. McClain. Edited by Bryan Carr and Richard Dumbrill. pub: Lulu. photo: Steve Swayne  for Wikipedia on Parthenon.

This note responds to Kapraff and McClain’s preceding paper, in which they discover a many-faceted musical symbolism in the Parthenon. Specifically,  Ernst  Berger’s  new measurements include the shorter side of the triple pedestal of the monument as an accurate length to represent one second of the double meridian of the earth. By applying a knowledge of ancient metrology, Anne Bulckens’ doctoral derivations of a root foot can resolve to a pygme of 9/8 feet, of which one second of latitude would contain 90 such feet. However, as a ‘hundred footer’, the foot  length  should  then be 81/80 (1.0125) feet, the ratio  of  the syntonic comma. This would indicate a replacement, by Classical times, of the geographical constant of 1.01376 feet  within the model of the earth since the original model, by the late megalithic, assumed that the meridian was exactly half of the mean circumference of the earth. These alternative geographical constants co-incidentally represent the ubiquitous theme in ancient musicology of the transition between Pythagorean and  Just tunings and their respective commas of Pythagorean 1.01364 … (in metrology 1.01376) and syntonic 81/80 (1.0125).

By Classical times the term hekatompedon or ‘hundred-footer’ had evolved, to describe the ideal dimensionality of Greek peristyle temples. One of the earliest, the Heraion of Samos, came to be 100 feet long by the end of the 8th century[1], in contrast to the surface width of the Parthenon’s stylobyte which had been established as in the range 101.141 (Stuart, c.1750) to 101.341 (Penrose in 1888) feet[2].

Recent measurements in 1982 by Ernst Berger[3] found that the top surface of the stylobyte was just over 101.25 feet wide4 and that the most frequently occurring length was 857.6 mm. Anne Bulckens’[5] corresponding foot measure for this would be a step of 2.5 feet, each of 9/8 (1.125) feet, to within
one part in 2500; a foot length called a pygme within historical metrology, after the size of small men first mentioned when Herakles was travelling back from India6. The shorter ends of the Parthenon’s stylobyte would then be 90 such feet across.

However, should the two ends be divided by 100, the required foot length of 101.25 feet becomes a microvariation of the English foot, namely 81/80 (1.0125) feet, a ratio identical with the syntonic comma. This is another ratio crucial to the history of ancient tuning theory; being found between pure Pythagorean tones (9/8) and their counterparts within just tuning (10/9); when string lengths are given specific whole number lengths to specify their pitches intellectually.

1. Hurwit, Jeffrey M., (1987), The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C., Cornell: Ithaca, 74-77
2. Berriman, A.E., (1953) Historical Metrology, London:
Dent. IX, 116-120.
3. Berger, E., ed. (1986) Parthenon-Kongress Basel, 2 Vols, Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.
4. an average noted by Berriman, 119.
5. Bulckens, A.M. (1999) The Parthenon’s Main Design Proportion and its Meaning, [Ph.D. Dissertation], Geelong: Deakin University, 269 pp. ; (2001) The Parthenon’s Symmetry in Symmetry: Art and Science (Fifth Interdisciplinary Symmetry Congress and Exhibition of the ISIS-Symmetry), (Sydney, 2001), no. 1-2, pp. 38-41.
6. Philostrates of Lemnos (c. 190 – c. 230 AD) Imagines Heracles among the Pygmies, see Loeb Classical Library

A recent article by Jay Kapraff and Ernest McClain[7] observes that the width of the Parthenon symbolically defined one second of latitude (taking surface lengths as linear fractions of latitude). This implies the double meridian length was known within 0.003% of its modern estimation.

A geodetic symbolism was apparently given to shorter side length of the Parthenon, making it smaller than it would have been if modelled on the circumference of the earth as one 3,600th of one 360th part of the mean earth. If so, this geodetic meaning of the Parthenon can be compared with monuments built two thousand years earlier, such as Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid of Giza, within which the relationship of the mean earth was specified, relative to the polar radius, using the same metrological system.

The ancient model of the earth, recovered[8] by John Neal[9] and John Michell[10], used three different approximations of π to model the distortion of
the rotating planet relative to its mean, or perfectly spherical, size. In that model, the Meridian was assumed to be half the circumference of the mean earth of 44 times 126 (131,383.296) feet or 24,883.2 miles. Had the Parthenon’s builders used this model then its ends would be 101.376 feet in width and one hundredth of this would be a foot of 1.01376 feet, the foot known as the ‘Standard Geographical’ Greek foot[11].

The mean circumference of the earth (24,883.2 miles) and the actual double meridian length (24,859.868 miles) are in the same ratio as the geographical foot of 1.01376 (3168/3125) and 1.0125 feet: the 81/80 foot measure that makes the Parthenon’s 101.25 feet a ‘hundred footer’. It is therefore reasonable to assume that, between the building of Stonehenge and Great Pyramid (by 2,500 B.C.) and the building of the Parthenon (designed by 447 B.C.), a more accurate
measurement of the Meridian had superseded the previous assumption, within the old model, that the Meridian was half the length of the mean earth circumference.

7. The Proportional System of the Parthenon, in preparation for the In Memoriam volume for Ernest McClain (1918-2014)
8. Michell by 1980 and Neal, fully formed, by 2000.
9. Neal, John (2000) All Done With Mirrors, Secret Academy, London.
10. Michell, John (1982) Ancient Metrology, Pentacle Books, Bristol, 1982; (2008 new ed.) Dimensions of Paradise, Inner Traditions: Rochester.

Further to this, one can see how the transition from Pythagorean to just tuning systems[12] is strangely present in the relationship between the mean earth circumference and the actual meridian length, since the geographical constant of 1.01376 is near identical to the Pythagorean comma of 1.0136433 while the (chosen) ratio of 1.0125 is the syntonic comma and this, times 100, is near identical to the actual length of one second of latitude which would be 100 times 1.0128 feet[13], just one third of an inch different from a more
modern result.

The Parthenon ‘Hundred footer’ was able to dimensionally reference one second of the Meridian by having its shorter sides one hundred feet of 1.0125 feet long. Aligned to north, this presented accurate Classical knowledge of the
Meridian’s length. The monument expresses other musicological features via its metrology: the 81/80 foot unit is 125/128 of the Athenian foot of 1.0368 feet, a musical interval called the minor diesis, also found within just intonation and equaling the deficiency of three major thirds to the octave

12 The latter prevalent in other aspects of the monument, see Kappraff, J. and McClain, E.G. (2005: Spring–Fall) The Proportions of the Parthenon: A work of musically inspired architecture, Music in Art: International Journal for Music Iconography, Vol. 30/1–2.
13 A non-harmonic 79/78 feet.