Multiple Squares to form Flattened Circle Megaliths

above: a 28 square grid with double, triple (top), and four-square rectangles (red),
plus (gray again) the triple rectangles within class B


1.     Problems with Thom’s Stone Circle Geometries.

2.     Egyptian Grids of Multiple Squares.

3.     Generating Flattened Circles using a Grid of Squares.


This paper reviews the geometries proposed by Alexander Thom for a shape called a flattened circle, survivors of these being quite commonly found in the British Isles. Thom’s proposals appear to have been rejected through (a) disbelief that the Neolithic builders of megalithic monuments could have generated such sophistication using only ropes and stakes and (b) through assertions that real structures do not obey the geometry he overlaid upon his surveys.

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Double squares: Venus and the Golden Mean

The humble square, with side length equal to one unit, is like the number one. It’s area is one square unit and, when we add another identical square to one side, the double square appears. Above right the Egyptian Djed column is shown within a double square. The Djed is the rotating earth which the gods and demons have a tug of war over. This is also a key story in the Indian tradition, called The Churning of the Oceans, where the churning creates both the food of the gods (soma) and every wonderful thing that emerges upon the Earth. In this, the double square symbolized the northern and southern hemispheres of the Earth. The anthropomorphic form Djed shown above has elbows indicative of the Double square.

Figure 1 The churning of the ocean (Samudra Manthan in Sanskrit)

The Djed appears to be the general principle of rotation of, and apparent motion around, the earth.

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The Approximation of π on Earth

π is a transcendental ratio existing between a diameter/ radius and circumference of a circle. A circle is an expression of eternity in that the circumference, if travelled upon, repeats eternally. The earths shape would be circular if the planet did not spin. Only the equator is now circular and enlarged, whilst the north and south poles have a shrunken radius and, in pre-history, the shape of the earth’s Meridian between the poles was quantified using approximations of π as was seen in the post before last. In some respects, the Earth is a designed type of planet which has to have a large moon, 3/11 of the earth’s size and a Meridian of such a size that the diverse biosphere can be created within the goldilocks region of the Sun’s radiance.

It would be impossible to quantify the earth as a physical object without the use of approximations to π, a technique seen as emerging in Crucuno between its dolmen and famous {3 4 5} Rectangle where the 32 lunar months in 945 days was used, through manipulation of proximate numbers to rationalize the lunar month to 27 feet (10 Drusian steps) within which days could be counted using one Iberian foot (of 32/35 feet) as described here and in my Sacred Geometry book.

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Sacred Number and the Lords of Time

Back Cover


“Heath has done a superb job of collating his own work on the subject of megaliths with the objective views of many other researchers in the field. I therefore do not merely recommend reading this book but can state unequivocally it is a must read.”
–John Neal, British metrologist and researcher and author of Measuring the Megaliths and The Structure of Metrology

“In Sacred Number and the Lords of Time we have an important explanation of how megalithic science was developed. This book is a long-overdue wakeup call to a modern culture that has abandoned this fully developed and astonishingly rich prehistoric model of the physical world. The truth is now out.”
–Robin Heath, coauthor of The Lost Science of Measuring the Earth and author of Sun, Moon and Earth

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A Pyramidion for the Great Pyramid

image: By 1200 BC, the end of the Bronze Age, the Egyptian map of the world (above) showed nine bows or latitudes, numbers 4 to 9 including the Nile Delta, Delphi, Southern Britain and Iceland, a map based on an ancient geodetic survey.

This post explores a pyramidion, now lost, which exceeded the apex height of the pyramid, so as to model the different reference latitudes established by geodetic surveys and encoded within their metrology and the Great Pyramid (by 2500 BC). This pyramidion would have sat on the flat top of the pyramid, 480 feet above the base of the pyramid.

In All Done With Mirrors, John Neal described how the full height of the pyramid, reaching to its natural apex, would have been just over 481 feet. Most pyramids probably had a pyramidion since a number have been found elsewhere that repeat aspects of or have a name carved on them, of a specific pyramid. Sitting on their apex, they often repeat the form of the larger pyramid, and are scale models of a specific pyramid. In the case of the Great Pyramid, exactly 441th of its natural apex is missing, and this is likely to be because a pyramidion once stood on the flat top the actual pyramid.

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Recalibrating the Pyramid of Giza

Once the actual height (480 feet) and actual southern base length (756 feet) are multiplied, the length of the 11th degree of latitude (Ethiopia) emerges, in English feet, as 362880 feet. However, in the numeracy of the 3rd millennium BC, a regular number would be used. In the last post, it was noted that John Neal’s discovery of such rectangular numbers to define degrees of latitude, multiplied the pyramid’s pointed height (481.09 feet) by the southern base length (756 feet) to achieve the length of the Nile Delta degree of latitude and, repeating Neal’s diagram relating the key latitudinal degrees of the ancient Model as figure 1, the Ethiopian degree is 440/441 of the Nile Delta degree. As shown above, the length of the 756 foot southern base is changed, when re-measured in the latitudinal feet for Ethiopia; it becomes the harmonic limit of 720 feet of 1.05 feet – normally called the root Persian foot.

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