**HAPPY NEW YEAR**

* above: The Basilica plan at some stage gained a front extension using a golden rectangleA rectangle whose sides are in the ratio of the Golden Mean (1.618034) or a Fibonacci approximation to the Golden Mean.*.

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**below:**Later Plan for St. Peter’s 16th–17th century. Anonymous. Metropolitan MuseumThe question is whether the extension from a square was related the previous square design. The original square seems quite reworked but similar still to the original square. The four gates were transformed into three ambulatories defining four circles left, above, right and centre, see below.

*Equal Perimeter models at the center of St Peter’s Basilica*

#### Equal Perimeter Models

The central circle can be considered as 11 units in diameter so that its out-square is then 44 units. The circle of equal perimeter to the square will then be 14 units in diameter and the difference of 3 defines a circle diameter 3 units. The 11-circle represents the Earth while the 3-circle represents the Moon, to very high precision – hence making this model a representative of the Mysteries inherited from deep antiquity; at least the megalithic age and/or early dynastic Egypt, when the earth’s size can be seen in Stonehenge and Great Pyramid. This inner EP model, is diagonal so that the pillars represent four moons.

An outer Equal Perimeter model is in the cardinal directions (this alternation also found in the Cosmati pavement at Westminster Abbey, and inner models are related to the microcosm of the human being relative to the slightly larger model of Moons). The two sizes of Moon define the circles at the center, around St Peter’s monument. The mandala-like character of the Equal Perimeter model give here the impressions of a flower’s petals and leaves.

#### Golden Rectangles

You may remember a recent post about double squares and golden rectangles, where a half-circle that fits a Square has root 5 diagonal radius which, arced down, generates a golden triangle. It is therefore possible to fit the square part of the original design and draw the circle that fits the half-diagonal of the square as shown below.

*The golden extension of the Basilica’s Square Plan*

By eye, the square’s side is one {1} and the new side length below is **1/φ** and the two together are **1 + 1/φ = φ **(D’B’ below) which is the magic of the Golden MeanThe Golden Mean is that unique ratio {1.618034}, relative to ONE {1}, in which its square and reciprocal share the same fractional part {.618034}. It is associated with the synodic period of the planet Venus, which is 8/5 {1.6} of the practical year {365 days}, by approximation. It is a key proportion found in Greco-Roman and later "classical" architecture, and commonly encountered in the forms living bodies take.. This insight can be quantified to grasp this design as a useful generality:

*Quantifying how the golden mean rectangles are generating phi (φ)*

Establishing the lengths from the unit square and point O, the center of the right hand side. OA’ is then **√5/2**. When this is arced, the square is placed inside a half circle A’C, BC is **√5/2 + 1/2 = 1/φ**.

The rectangle sides ACD’B’ are the golden mean r*elative to* the width A’B = 1, the unit square’s side, but that unit side length A’B is the golden mean relative to the side of the golden rectangle BC. In addition the length B’D’ is the golden mean squared relative to BC, the side of the golden rectangle.

#### Commentary

It seems that the equal perimeter models within the square design of Bramante were adjusted. The golden mean was used to extend the Basilica (originally an Orthodox square building named after St Basil) into a golden rectangle. This could be done by adding the equivalent lesser golden rectangle, relative to the unit square through the properties of the out half-circle from O.

The series of golden rectangles can travel out in four directions, each coming naturally from a single unitary square. The likely threefold symbolic message, added by the extension seems to be the primacy of the unitary square, of St Peter (on whom the Church was to be founded) and of the Pope (as a living symbol of St Peter).

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